More on Isaiah and Eve (Kennedy) Phipps

Comments regarding the family of Isaiah Phipps of Ashe County, North Carolina, Letcher County, Kentucky and Lawrence County, Indiana were provided by a reader. These comments were posted a day or two ago in response to an earlier post titled “Some Descendants of Isaiah Phipps of Ashe Co., NC and Lawrence Co., IN.”

Isaiah and Eve (Kennedy) Phipps, also had a daughter named Mary Macy Phipps. The 1850 census in Letcher Ky. did not list Mary Mazy, because she had already married Isom B. Osborne and moved out. Isom and Mary Mazy (Phipps) Osborne can be found in the 1860 census of Tazewell Co. Va. I’m not sure what happened to Mary Mazy. Some have said, that Isom and Mary Mazy divorced. Others say that she went to Indiana. Another story is a that she died. This all took place durning the civil war. Mary Mazy and Isom Osborne had several children. They are listed in the 1860 census records of Tazewell Co. Va. In the 1870 census of Tazewell Co. Va. Isom is listed with a new wife, Nancy (Halloway) Osborne.

A very old discussion forum post, dating from 1998, appears to refer to this Isom Osborne not as such, but as Jesse Osborne. That post mentions an Isom Osborne, but doesn’t appear to state the relationship. The post refers to both a Jesse Osborne and a Jesse Isom Osborne, but seems to say that Jesse Osborne married Mary Maizie Phipps and then Nancy Halloway Isom.

In another old post, this one dated 1999, Isom Osborne married Mary Maizie Phipps and had a son named Jesse. Another website calls him Isom Burton Osborne and says that he married “Maria” Maizie Phipps.

In a 2006 discussion post, the couple are Isom Osborn and Maria or Mary Mazy Phipps. In that page, she was possibly a daughter of Isaiah Phipps and divorced Isom, then moved to Indiana.

Trying to find the 1860 census record in Tazewell County as described above wasn’t easy. In fact, it wasn’t located at all. Online census searches in multiple databases did not turn up any 1860 listing as described under either the name Isom Osborne  or under Jesse Osborne in Tazewell County, Virginia.

The closest that could be found to the 1860 census entry appears not in Tazewell County, Virginia at all, but in Smyth County. Smyth County is immediately south of Tazewell County, and immediately north of Grayson County.

From the 1860 census, Smyth County, Virginia, with post office at 7 Mile Ford, 27 June 1860, p. 43, #281/281:

  • Isem Osburn, 36 [born about 1824], male, laborer, real estate [blank], personal estate [blank], born Virginia
  • Maria M. Osburn, 35 [born about 1825], female, Virginia
  • Nancy E. Osburn, 16 [born about 1844], female, Virginia
  • Adaline Osburn, 13 [born about 1847], female, Virginia, attended school
  • Jessee Osburn, 10 [born about 1850], male, Virginia, attended school
  • William Osburn, 8 [born about 1852], male, Virginia
  • Solomon Osburn, 4 [born about 1856], male, Virginia
  • Mary Osburn, 1 [born about 1859], female, Virginia

Was this “Maria M.” authentically Maria Maizie (however spelled) Phips or Phipps, and was she the daughter of Isaiah and Eve (Kennedy) Phips or Phipps? Clearly more research could be warranted in terms of this family.


About 1790

Isaiah Phipps was born about 1790 in North Carolina according to the 1850 census. Goodspeed’s 1884 history of Lawrence County, Indiana says that he married Eve Kennedy in North Carolina and that they “reared seven sons and seven daughters.”


As “Isiah Phips,” he signed a petition in Grayson County, Virginia (adjacent to Ashe County, North Carolina) regarding the return of land surveys and certificates. The document is dated 16 December 1811. Also signing were “jesie ffhips,” “Samuel Fhips,” “John phips,” and “george phips.”


In February 1834, an inventory of the estate of George Phips refers to a note on “Isah Phips.”


Isaiah Phipps appears with wife “Edy” in the 1850 census on 31 August 1850 in Letcher County, Kentucky. The census indicates that he was born about 1790 and “Edy” about 1795, both in North Carolina. He only owned real estate worth $50, suggesting that he had not been in this location long. Children listed are David (14), William (14), Marion (12), Isaiah (10), and Louisa A. (3).


He arrived in Lawrence County, Indiana in 1852 according to Goodspeed’s 1884 county history.


Again, the 1884 Goodspeed history of Lawrence County, Indiana associated “seven sons and seven daughters” with Isaiah and Eve (Kennedy) Phipps. Adding Mary Maizie, or Maria Mazy, etc., to the list below gives us just 7 children – period – not 7 sons and 7 daughters. In addition, their birthdates span a tremendous range of years, from about 1818 to about 1847, a factor which seems suspect.

(1) George Phipps

George was born about 1818 in North Carolina according to the 1850, 1860, and 1870 censuses, and about 1818 in North Carolina according to the 1880 census. He was born about 1817 according to an 1883 newspaper article, and on 15 March 1818 according to his tombstone inscription.

George Phipps and Mary Baldwin were married on 3 March 1845 by a justice of the peace, according to a Lawrence County, Indiana marriage record.

(2) William Phipps

William was born about 1836 in North Carolina according to the 1850 census. The census indicates that he and David were twins.

(3) David Phipps

David, William’s twin brother, was of course also born about 1836 in North Carolina.

(4) Isaiah Phipps, Jr.

The younger Isaiah was born about 1840 in North Carolina according to the 1850, 1870, and 1880 census, or in July 1839 in North Carolina according to the 1900 census. His Civil War pension application file indicates that he was born in Ashe County, North Carolina. According to his obituary and Goodspeed’s 1884 Lawrence County, Indiana history, he was born 10 July 1839 in Ashe County.

He married Mary C. Roby in 1861 according to Goodspeed. He then married Mary A. Parks in 1867 according to the same source. He appears to have married yet again, on 25 February 1909 in Lawrence County, to Anna McNabb, according to a marriage record.

(5) Francis Marion Phipps

According to the 1850 census, he was born about 1838 in North Carolina. He was born April 1841 in North Carolina according to the 1900 census, and in Ashe County according to the death certificate of his daughter Eva. He married Sarah Terrell 11 November 1860 in Lawrence County, Indiana according to a marriage record.

(6) Louisa A. Phipps

She was born about 1847 in North Carolina according to the 1850 census.

Response to the Last Post

I reader provided an interesting and helpful comment in response to the last post:

 . . . Apparently there is a cemetery record for Lucy T. Cross in Maple Hill cemetery, now in Madison county showing that she died in November of 1873. I’ve only seen this on and index.

I feel confident that Lazarus Vann was not Lucy’s father. Lucy Tuberville Phipps appears to have been born no later than 1835, her sister Emily was born around 1819, and her brother Robert was born around 1820. Martha married John Richie Inman in 1837, then Lazarus Vann in 1839. Both of these marriages happened after Martha’s children were born.

More About Lucy Tuberville (Phipps) Cross

The last post dealt with Lucy Tuberville Phipps who married John Madison Cross. Lucy was a daughter of Martha G. Phipps. The children of Martha appear to have gone by her maiden name after her marriage to Lazarus Vann dissolved. Martha’s father was Benjamin Phipps of Brunswick County, Virginia.

As noted in the last post, daughter Lucy (Phipps) Cross’s husband John Madison Cross held land in Virginia while living in Madison County, Alabama. Lucy was born about 1834-1835 according to the 1850 and 1860 censuses. As a result, she is presumably the 5-10-year-old female who appears in the 1840 census with her parents Lazarus Vann and, presumably, his wife Martha Phipps.


From the 1840 census, “South Half of Madison County,” Alabama:

Lazarus Vann:

  • Free white males:
    • 1 10-15
    • 2 15-20
    • 1 50-60 [presumably Lazarus Vann, born about 1780-1790]
  • Free white females:
    • 1 5-10 [presumably daughter Lucy who later went by Phipps, born about 1830-1835]
    • 2 20-30
    • 1 40-50 [presumably Martha (Phipps) Vann, born about 1790-1800]
  • Male slaves:
    • 3 under 10
    • 1 10-24
    • 1 24-36
  • Female slaves:
    • 1 under 10
    • 1 24-36


By the time of the 1850 census, Martha (Phipps) Vann was no longer living with Lazarus Vann. She appears in the 1850 census as “Marthy,” with her maiden surname. Her children are also shown using her maiden surname.

From the 1850 census, District 35, Madison County, Alabama, 2 November 1850:

  • #122/122: [household of Andrew I. or J.?] Vann.
  • #123/123: [intervening household]
  • #124/124:
    • Marthy G Phips, 55 [born about 1795], female, real estate $1,700, born Virginia
    • Robert S Phips, 30 [born about 1820], male, farmer, Virginia
    • Lucy T [no surname, presumably Phips], 16 [born about 1834], female, Virginia, attended school


In 1853, daughter Lucy Phipps married John Madison Cross in Madison County, Alabama.

From Madison County, Alabama Marriage Record Book 4-B, p. 23:

To any Judge of said State, any Justice of the Peace of said County, or other person legally authorized:
THESE are to authorize you, or either of you, to solemnize the rights of matrimony between John M. Cross – and Lucy T. Phipps – of said County, agreeably to the statue in such case made and provided. Given at the Office of the Judge of Probate of said County, this 20th – day of December – 1853.
[signed:] F. [G.? or L.?] Hammond – JUDGE P. C.

Solemnized on the 20th – day of December – 1853.
[signed:] B. C. Chapman.


From the 1860 census, South Eastern Division, Madison County, Alabama, with post office at New Hope, 19 June 1860, p. 60, #410/408:

  • John Cross, 26 [born about 1834], male, farmer, real estate $3,000, personal estate $12,000, born Alabama
  • Lucy Cross, 25 [born about 1835], female, domestic, Alabama
  • Chas. Cross, 5 [born about 1855], male, Alabama
  • Walter Cross, 3 [born about 1857], male, Alabama
  • Martha Cross, 1 [born about 1859], female, Alabama
  • Jno. Mathewson, 25 [born about 1835], male, laborer, Alabama


From Freedmen’s Bureau office records, Huntsville, Alabama, roll 15, 1865-1868, p. 225, contract apparently dated 1866, since that date appears on the preceding page:

668. Mrs. L. T. Cross with Robt Gardner, Colord [sic; colored]
Madison County Ala March 31st 1866
Contract for the year 1866.

Mrs. Lucy T. Cross is bound in the Sum of $300 – to comply with this contract & is to furnish to Robert Gardner, Freedman, Fifty acres of Land more or less to be cultivated in corn and cotton (also truck patches free of charge) –

I also agree to pay the Said Robert Seventy-five Cents per hundred for splitting rails for me: and the Said Gardner binds himself to cultivate the said land properly, & to give to the Said Mrs. L. T. Cross, one third (1/3) of the crop raised by him on her plantation. He is, also bound to pay to the Said Mrs. Cross Seventy-five dollars for one Mule to be paid out of the proceeds of his share of the crop, when gathered. Signed in duplicate

Lucy T Cross
Robert X Gardner, colord [sic; colored]

R B Norrell, clk [i.e. Clerk]


From Freedmen’s Bureau office records, Huntsville, Alabama, roll 15, 1865-1868, p. 79, contract apparently dated 1867, since that date appears on the preceding page:

This Contract between Lucy T Cross and Robert Gardener, (Cold) [presumably for Colored], is that Lucy T Cross agrees to furnish some forty or fifty acres of open Land and furnish stock & every thing to make a crop except clothing & boarding the hands and Said Robert Gardner agrees to furnish him self & family and Martha & family to make the Crop to do all the work except Splitting new Railes, and the said Lucy T Cross agrees to give them (B) [presumably for Black], the Crop of Wheat & 1/2 the Crop of Corn and Cotton made by the Said Robert Gardner & Martha & families and they agree to work by the direction of John M Cross for which they forfeit their part of the Crop if they fail to work otherwise and they also make a truck patch of Irish & Sweet potatoes for a patch for themselves

Lucy T Cross
Robert his X mark Gardner

Approved Jno [B? or R?] [Callis?]
[?] Col US[V?] & [?]

Witness [signed:]
[T? or L?] [M.? or U.?] Green


From the 1870 census, Ward 1, Huntsville, Madison County, Alabama, 22 June 1870, p. 30, #176/235:

  • John M Cross, 38 [born about 1832], male, white, bookkeeper, born Alabama
  • Lucy D [T in other sources] Cross, 35 [born about 1835], female, white, keeping house, Virginia
  • Chas. C Cross, 14 [born about 1856], male, white, Alabama, attended school
  • Walter A Cross, 13 [born about 1857], male, white, Alabama, attended school
  • Andew [sic; Andrew] [S? or L?] Cross, 7 [born about 1863], male, white, Alabama, attended school
  • Mattie Cross, 11 [born about 1859], female, white, Alabama, attended school
  • Wm. H Cross, 7/12 [age 7 months], male, white, Alabama, born January


John is listed as John Madison Cross (with his middle name given as such), employed as a register for the federal land office in Huntsville, Alabama on 30 September 1873, in General Land Office registers listed in Register of Officers and Agents, Civil, Military, and Naval…, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1873, p. 307.

The year 1873 is also when Lucy is said to have died. A Find A Grave page claims that she is buried in Maple Hill Cemetery in Huntsville, but without any tombstone photo or reference to a written record, such as a sexton’s record, to verify this.


Because the 1888 biography of John M. Cross (below) states that he married 3 times, the following seems likely relevant.

From The Southern Immigrant, Cullman, Alabama, 23 May 1878, p. 3:

Deaths. . . .

In Huntsville, May 2, Mrs. Sue A. Cross, wife of John M. Cross.


John is referred to as John M. Cross, register of the federal land office at Huntsville, Alabama, in the Alabama Supreme Court case known as Bernstein v. Humes (75 Ala. 241).


A biography of John M. Cross, husband of Lucy Phipps, appeared in 1888. Note that the biography states that he had married 3 times.

From Northern Alabama: Historical and Biographical, Birmingham: Smith & De Land, 1888, p. 280:

JOHN M. CROSS, a prominent Real Estate Operator, is a native of Huntsville, where he was born in 1833 and has resided all of his life.

He is a son of Andrew Cross, a native of Virginia, who was of English stock, and one of the first settlers in Hunsville.

Our subject was in early life a clerk, and from 1859 until 1867 followed planting. He was opposed to the war, and at the first election after the war he was elected Tax Assessor by the Republicans.

In 1872 he was appointed Register of the United States Land Office at Huntsville, and held that position twelve years. Since that period Mr. Cross has devoted his attention to real estate transactions, and is now a mmber of that well-know [sic; well-known] firm of Lane, Cross & Gill.

Mr. Cross was a candidate for the office of Probate Judge on the Republican ticket in1886, and has always affiliated himself with that party. He was accumulated some property, and is an esteemed citizen.

Mr. Cross has been thrice married and has nine children living.


John died in 1900 and is buried in Maple Hill Cemetery in Huntsville. A poor quality photo of the tombstone appears in Find A Grave, but is difficult to read. The tombstone does clearly refer to him as John Madison Cross, and shows him as buried with one of his 3 wives. She is identified on the stone as Laura Scott Cross.

More on Virginia and Alabama

A reader posted a response to an older post titled “William Phipps & Wife Temperance Saxon, Brunswick County, Virginia:”

Just looking at John Madison Cross’ probate file from 1900 in Madison county, Alabama.. John was married to Lucy Tuberville Phipps, daughter of Martha G. Phipps Vann. Martha was the daughter of Benjamin Phipps, and I believe a sister to the William in the post, “William Phipps & Temperance Saxon, Brunswick Co. Virginia.” John’s wife Lucy died in 1873, and John remarried. He died in 1900. In the part of the will where is listing the items that he is leaving his wife, it says, “… and my land in Virginia, now occupied by Sally Phipps and her sister, and it is desired that they shall remain on the land their lifetime.” In the 1900 US census, there is a Sally and sister Lucie living in Powellton, Brunswick county, Virginia.They are of an age to be the same Sally and Lucy shown in the census records listed in this post as the daughters of William and Temperance Phipps. Not sure how Sally and Lucy came to live on land in Virginia that was owned by John Cross from Alabama, but thought this information might be useful to someone. John’s relationship to Sally and Lucy would be that they were first cousins to his first wife Lucy Tuberville Phipps.

On a side note, I’ve noticed that many trees on have tied the William who married Temperance to the Benjamin from Grayson county, Virginia who also had a son named William. I believe the William who was married to Temperance was the son of the Benjamin in Brunswick county, Virginia, not the Benjamin of Grayson county.

More on Benjamin Phipps, Alabama and Virginia

A comment from a reader posted in response to “Benjamin Phipps: Alabama or Virginia? Or Both?” noted the following:

I just noticed something else that I find interesting. In the 1830 US Census for Meherrin, Brunswick County, Virginia there is a Benjamin Phipps, who I am pretty sure is the Benjamin Phipps that is being discussed in the “Benjamin Phipps: Virginia or Alabama? Or Both?” post. In that census record, in addition to 9 free white people, and 19 slaves, it shows 3 Free People of Color living in the household… a women between the ages of 24 and 35, and 2 girl children under the age of 10. Does anyone know who this Free Woman of Color and her children were?

Jesse Phips in Ashe County, North Carolina, 1815

The following comes from a tax record sent to the State of North Carolina from Ashe County regarding settling of accounts between local officials and the state in 1815. Spelling of individual words in the heading of the final column varies from page to page. The heading on various pages appears to read, essentially, “Local Situations [or Situation] or [possibly “of”] Persons names Whose [or Whoes] Lands is Supposed to be Agaiant,” or “Agasent,” or “Agaent,” etc.

One page contains the name of Jesse Phips in close proximity to Tolliver or Tollever names. The Phips and Toliver families were closely associated, with multiple intermarriages. The name Ezra Philips (for what it’s worth) appears right above those of Chas. Tolliver and William Tolliver.

Capt. Williams District:

  • Name: Jesse Phips
  • No. of Acres of Land: 50
  • Valuation [I?] Dollars: 60
  • White Poles [sic; polls]: 1
  • Black Poles [sic; polls]: –
  • Local Situation or Persons names, Whose Lands is Supposed to be [Against?]: Do [for “ditto,” referring to “Little River”]

Note the reference to Little River. In 1859, part of Ashe County became Alleghany County. The part of Ashe County in which Jesse’s father Samuel was living when he died in 1854 was included in what became Alleghany County in 1859. The very helpful Cheek Family of Alleghany County, North Carolina site refers to Alleghany County as being home to Peach Bottom Mountain, which was associated with Samuel Phips’s friend Jesse Toliver, and the valley of Little River.

In the tax record, the name Zachariah Spurling Jnr. appears further down on the same page. According to strong family tradition, Jesse Phips married Jane (“Jennie”) Spurlin (as it seems to have been often spelled). This marriage claim is confirmed by an 1853 legal notice in which Jesse “Phipps” and his wife Jane are named as heirs of Zachariah Spurlin.

It’s not clear from these two records alone, however, whether Jesse’s father in law was Zachariah Sr. or Zachariah Jr. From the 1810 census, it would appear that the person listed in Ashe County as “Z. Spurling” in that year must have been Zachariah, Jr., since he appears from that record to have been born about 1784-1794. Zachariah, Sr., on the other hand, appears to have been born about 1755 or earlier according to the 1800 census in Ashe County (about 1775 or earlier according to the 1820 census).

The following advertisement appeared in the Raleigh Register, Raleigh, North Carolina, on 20 Apr 1853. This record refers to “Jesse Phipps and wife Jane” as heirs of Zachariah Spurlin.

They are referred to as living “beyond the limits” of North Carolina. Jesse Phips appears to have moved from Owen County, Indiana to Putnam County, Missouri right around 1853 to 1854. He had moved to Owen County, Indiana in 1833 from Ashe County, North Carolina.

STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, – ASHE COUNTY, – Court of Pleas and Quarter Session, February Term, A. D. 1853.

Petition for partition of Land.

John Spurlin and others vs. Jesse Phipps and wife Jane, Jesse Hill and wife Patsy, and the heirs of Zachariah Spurlin deceased, whose names are unknown.

It appearing to the satisfaction of the Court, that Jesse Phipps and his wife Jane, Jesse Hill and his wife Patsy, and the heirs at Law of Zachariah Spurlin deceased, whose names are unknown, live beyond the limits of the State of North Carolina, it is ordered by the Court, that publication be made for six weeks in the Raleigh Register, notifying and requiring the said absent defendants to be and appear to the next term of our Court, to be held for the County of Ashe, at the Court House in Jefferson, on the 4th Monday in May next, and then and there plead, answer or demur, to the petition filed against them, or the same will be taken pro confesso as to them.

Witness John Ray, Clerk of our said Court, at office, the 4th Monday of February, A. D. 1853.
JOHN RAY, C. C. C. [County Court Clerk?]
April 20, 1853.

Benjamin Phipps: Alabama or Virginia? Or Both?

A reader posted a very interesting comment to the earlier blog article title Wilson Phipps, Son of Benjamin Phipps. The comment has to do with the claim that Benjamin Phipps died in the mid-1840s in Madison County, Alabama, while maintaining some sort of Brunswick County, Virginia direct ties.

Mrs. Howard Woodruff, as noted in the earlier post, believed that Benjamin died by 1844. The earlier post referred to an obituary, however, which suggests that he did in early 1845, unless it’s a different individual. That obituary appeared in the Richmond Enquirer on 11 February 1845.

As noted in the earlier post, the obituary says that Benjamin Phipps died at his home in Brunswick County, Virginia, not in Madison County, Alabama. The odd factor, however, is the tag line at the end: “The Mississippi, Georgia, and Alabama papers will please copy.”

“Please copy” notices were very common in older obituaries, especially back in the era when newspapers freely copied from each other, with little or no concern for copyright. This was a common practice and is of genealogical significance, because it always signified some sort of connection to the other location named. In this case, 3 locations are named, Mississippi, Georgia, and Alabama. This suggests that Benjamin himself, or close family members, had some sort of connection to all 3 locations.

It’s possible that this Benjamin Phipps may have been subject to the same sort of unusual genealogical phenomenon that we’ve found in other Phipps or Fips, etc. individuals. Strangely, sometimes they show up in two or more counties – or even two or more colonies or states – simultaneously or close to simultaneously.

This has been rather pronounced in the case of the “of Brunswick County, Virginia” records we’ve noted in locations outside of Brunswick County, Virginia. In the case of Benjamin Phipps, an earlier blog post referred to a second-hand reference to an 1847 Madison County, Alabama deed naming Benjamin Phipps there but using the “of” Brunswick County, Virginia catch-phrase. Why this phenomenon was so common among family members is, at this point, anyone’s guess.

As our reader noted,

Per the first part of the above post, I have not read Mrs. Woodruff’s book (although I would like to find a copy and do so), but I really don’t think that Benjamin Phipps lived or died in Madison County, Alabama. There is a lawsuit between Benjamin Phipps and Claxton Lightfoot, and an index shows that it is case number 5017, but from 1827. I’ve ordered this file, and I’ll share my findings. Perhaps Benjamin lived in Madison County for a short time, but he can be found in both the 1830 and 1840 census in Meherrin Parish, Brunswick County, Virginia, which is the same parish as the above mentioned 1820 census. Maybe he lived in Madison county for a short time between 1820 and 1830, but I really don’t think he died there. Perhaps he had business interests there and that is the reason for the lawsuit, and request for the obituary to be published there.

I feel like his daughter Martha moved there between 1834 and 1836. The 1850 and 1870 census indicate that her daughter Lucy was born in Virginia in 1834. The 1860 census states that she was born in Alabama in 1834. It is possible that Martha moved there sooner than 1834. In 1836, Martha G. Phipps signed a document in Madison County.

Speaking of which, this is interesting…. The document she signed, she signed in May of 1836. It appears to be a kind of I.O.U. It says:

“$40.00 on or before the first day of January next we or either of us promise to pay John C Grayson est of John Grayson dec. Forty dollars for the benefit of the legatees to the said decedents estate, for value rcvd as witness our hands and ???, this 20th day of May 1836.”

Here is the interesting part, it is signed by John R. Inman, who Martha will marry in 6 months later in January of 1837; also signed by Thomas Hungerford (I think that is what the last name is – I don’t know who this is); and also signed by Martha G. Phipps. So, the 3 of them all signed this note separately on their own line.

I only have a brief idea of how the laws for women worked, but it seems like Martha was financially independent, which I think is somewhat unusual. She married John R. Inman in January 1837. He died just a few weeks later, without a will and in debt, but Martha seems to come through this financially unscathed. When she marries Lazarus Vann just about 2 years later, they had a prenuptial agreement that was mentioned in Martha’s probate record. It appears that Lazarus had no claim on her estate when she died, and her estate was split between her daughter Lucy Tuberville Phipps Cross and son Robert Stanfield Phipps.

Also, in the deed that is transcribed in the post on this site titled “Slaves of Benjamin Phipps”, 1824-1826″, the second deed indicates that the enslaved person Reuben was “purchased” with Martha’s money by her father Benjamin. Reubin was deeded to Benjamin from Thomas Jones in 1824. By 1824, Martha had two children born in 1819 and 1820, so was likely married by this time, but perhaps widowed or divorced by 1824.