The last couple posts implied that an important link may exist in the person of Col. John Jeaffreson. Two factors would determine the importance of the role played by this individual. One centers around whether reports in published genealogies are correct.
The other concerns whether he had a hand in sending young John Phips as a surveyor to Virginia on behalf of the Virginia Company. If the answer in both cases is yes, then Jeaffreson’s connection would suggest that segments of the family formerly regarded as disparate were probably more closely linked than formerly suspected.
Col. John Jeaffreson was a London merchant who, as already noted, was involved in the Virginia Company in the early 1620s. This is precisely when (in 1621) the Virginia Company sent the young surveyor John Phips of the London area to Virginia.
Since John Jeaffreson’s widow married Francis Phipps or Phips, did he have earlier Phipps or Phips connections? If so, was he responsible for choosing John Phips as Virginia surveyor, or did he at least serve to push the London-based Virginia Company in that direction? As a further note, Francis Phipps, at least in 1649, held the job title of Surveyor of Highways.
Jeaffreson died in 1660, and so did Anne (Sharpe) Phipps, wife of Francis Phipps of Reading, Berkshire, England. Francis Phipps then appears to have remarried, this time to Sarah, widow of Col. John Jeaffreson.
By his earlier marriage to Anne Sharpe, this Francis had a daughter Anna (Ann), who married George Reeves who died in Virginia. This later Ann’s twin brother Constantine had a direct descendant who became the godfather of Betty Tayloe Corbin, evidently in Virginia, who was born in 1764.
This family line rapidly becomes confusing because of multiple Constantines. The following appears to be the gist. Note the Virginia connections:
- Generation 1: Constantine Henry Phipps, baptized 1656, twin brother of Anna Phipps who married George Reeves who died in Virginia
- Generation 2: William Phipps, baptized 1698, son of Constantine Henry Phipps
- Generation 3: Constantine Phipps, baptized 1722, son of William
- Generation 4: Constantine John Phipps, born 1744; he became godfather to Betty Tayloe Corbin, apparently in Virginia, in 1764; he also attempted to reach the North Pole and may be the “Captain Fibbs” mentioned by Philip Vickers Fithin in connection with a barbecue in Virginia in 1774, since Fithin writes about Betty’s family
Jeaffreson, of course, is viewed as a variant spelling of Jefferson. Some evidence links Col. John Jeaffreson with a certain Thomas Jefferson who was in the Caribbean, living on Nevis and then Jamaica, around the same time that Col. John Jeaffreson was there. Speculation suggests that this Thomas may have been John Jeaffreson’s son, and that he may have been the Jefferson who later moved to Henrico County, Virginia.
Henrico was established as one of the 8 original Virginia shires in 1634, with the James River running through it. Eleven counties have been formed out of Henrico. The first of these was Goochland County, the county we’ve referred to over and over again in connection with the Phips or Fipps or Phipps family and associated families.
The importance of Jeaffreson to the history of the Phipps/Phips family largely hinges around the timeline below. This is also dependent on the veracity of published genealogies and related records, some of which requires verification.
Note with regard to the below that far more could be included, but in some cases it isn’t clear how certain individuals connect or it isn’t clear whether certain records bearing the same names refer to the same persons. One very odd factor is the fact that while other families seem to trumpet the successes and “prominent” nature of family members, the Phipps/Phips family seems to have almost done the opposite.
It’s only by digging through records that one finds surprising connections to nobility and to notable accomplishments. Through it all, some sort of link to William Phips, governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, is suggested (sometimes in ways that appear impossible).
Some evidence suggests that some sort of link to this William is certainly possible, but the details are unclear. So many details regarding him appear to have been obfuscated in biographies and pedigrees, that one has to wonder whether there was something to hide. Certainly there was at least a documented close social tie between “Sir William” of Massachusetts and Constantine Henry Phipps, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with that Constantine’s twin sister having married a Reeves who died in Virginia (!).
One factor to keep in mind about the possibility of such geographically far-flung connections is that great distances were of minimal concern to a sea captain. The writings of Christopher Jeaffreson, son of Col. John Jeaffreson, refer to “Young Constantine Phipps (the future Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and the cousin of the inventor of the diving-bell).”
The diving bell reference would clearly point to Sir William Phips, although he appears to only have improved on an earlier invention. This reference to William as “cousin” of Constantine Phipps, however, is probably based on the belief of Christopher Jeafferson’s later editor, John Cordy Jeaffreson, rather than stemming from the pen of Christopher himself.
Still, some sort of connection to William certainly seems plausible, even likely, for reasons mentioned in the timeline below. Regarding the Caribbean trading exploits of Col. John Jeaffreson and his associate Capt. Thomas Warner, it was said in an old (1903) genealogical note that “It is true that Bristol,” presumably referring to the city, “was greatly interested in the Virginia trade, and later in the West Indian.” Bristol is, of course, the seafaring city from which Sir William Phips’s family supposedly originated.
John Cordy Jeaffreson refers to Constantine Phipps and Christopher Jeaffreson as having been “brothers by affinity” (see here, p. 133). This, however, is probably based only on his lack of understanding of a somewhat complex relationship: John Jeaffreson married Sarah; he died and she remarried to Francis Phipps, with Constantine being Francis’s son by his previous marriage to Anne Sharpe.
If John Cordy Jeaffreson did not know this, then it’s hardly surprising that he would assume that Constantine Phipps and Christopher Jeaffreson were called brothers, but only “by affinity.” Certainly there was no blood relationship, but Christopher Jeaffreson’s father married Constantine Phipps’s stepmother.
Christopher Jeaffreson also referred, in his writings, to “Mrs. Reeves,” who he notes in a letter had been ill. The letter is dated 24 October 1684 in London, and could possibly refer to Ann (Phipps) Reeves, daughter of Francis Phipps and wife of George Reeves (see here, pp. 135-139, at p. 137). The very same letter, which Christopher Jeaffreson addressed to “Dear Brother,” begins by referring to “our brother Constantine Phipps,” who was recently married.
Col. John Jeaffreson and his associate Sir Thomas Warner were responsible for what has been called the first English settlement in the West Indies, at St. Kitts, during the reign of James I. Evidently Jeaffreson and Warner were backed by a London merchant named Ralph Merrifield.
Merrifield is described as having been interested in “undercover” trade with the Caribbean. Another source puts this a bit more strongly, asserting that Merrifield was interested in the “clandestine” trade with the Caribbean.
Note the various previous posts in this blog which have pointed to various indications of possible undercover mercantile adventures of the Phips or Phipps family. With Merrifield’s backing, Warner was planting tobacco on St. Kitts by 1624.
Thomas Warner is buried with Samuel Jeaffreson, Col. John Jeaffreson’s brother, in the cemetery of St. Thomas’s Anglican Church on the Middle Island of St. Kitts. This is the oldest Anglican church in the West Indies.
One online document refers to John Jeaffreson, presumably the one of our discussion, as having been the captain of the Hopewell. The ship came to the relief of early settlers on St. Kitts after a hurricane hit there in 1624.
Col. John Jeaffreson became one of the early settlers there in 1624 or 1625. (One source says 1623.) In 1625 he came to own Wingfield Estate, also known as the Red House Plantation, in what has been described as the earliest land grant in the British Caribbean. A royal patent in 1627 gave 1,000 acres in St. Kitts to Col. John Jeaffreson and one Johnson for “defeating, suppressing and conquering” the “savage inhabitants” of St. Kitts.
A footnote in an article appearing in 1922 in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography appears to assert that Col. John Jeaffreson, which it calls Capt. John Jefferson, “lived for some years in Virginia.” That was in addition to being a London merchant. If so, then this establishes yet another Virginia connection with, of course, additional opportunity for Phips or Phipps interaction between England and Virginia.
That same footnote says that the king appointed Jeaffreson (called Jefferson) as a member of a commission in 1623. The king wanted this commission to pressure the Virginia Assembly to dissolve the Virginia Company, but Jeaffreson refused to go along with it.
A 1687 reference has the will of Richard Sanders, apparently of the London area, referring to 22 sacks of meal which he had stored in Francis Phipps’ barge. The Francis who fathered the twins Constantine Phipps and Anne (Phipps) Reeves would have died by this time, and his son Francis appears to have become a rector, but perhaps this was a relative.
The Francis of our discussion, by the way, was involved in a lawsuit involving Dame Rose Blagrave, apparently as a defendant, in 1657. When Francis died, one of his executors was John Blagrave of Arborfield. Other executors were Thomas Seikes (Seakes) of Reading, and Thomas Bullocke (Bullock) of Binfield.
The marriage license for the marriage of Francis’s daughter Ann to George Reeves in 1675 in Lee, county Kent, states that her parents were dead, and that she was “at the disposal” of two men who gave their consent. These were John Blagrave of Arborfield and Thomas Bullock of Binfield, both in Berkshire. We’ve noted a connection between Tandy Walker, associated with John Fips of Carolina County, Virginia, much, much later, but the recurrence of the name there might just be coincidence.
Although confusingly worded, it’s apparently John Blagrave who is being referred to as one of the “knights of the royal oak.” That group was described as “an order of knighthood intended to have been established by King Charles II, after his restoration, to commemorate his escape in an oak after the battle of Worcester.”
One source shows John Blagrave, esquire, of Southcote (Southcott), in a 1759 Berkshire militia list. This is late, of course, but it would certainly be a relative of the earlier John Blagrave, and Dame Rose Blagrave, with whom Francis Phipps was involved in a lawsuit, was described in a later probate record as being a widow of Southcote.
In the same militia company in which John Blagrave was a captain, John Reeves is listed as a lieutenant of Arborfield. Arborfield is the same location that the earlier John Blagrave was from, and we can suspect that he was likely related to the George Reeves who married Ann Phipps and who died in Virginia.
The earlier John Blagrave, presumably the Sir John Blagrave who served as a sheriff of Berkshire in 1623. He appears to have been the father of a later John who was a famous mathematician. The earlier one, however, may have been the one who designed a well known armillary spherical sundial called the Mathematical Jewell, which was recently recreated.
Another Blagrave, Anthony Blagrave, was High Sheriff of Berkshire in 1604, Sir Thomas Vachell was High Sheriff in 1611. Francis Phipps was referred to as “heretofore my servant,” whatever that meant, in a codicil to the will of Tanfield Vachell in 1658 in Reading in Berkshire.
As far as Thomas Bullocke of Binfield is concerned, there was supposedly an earlier Thomas Bullock (about 1500 to 1558 of Arborfield, a son of Gilbert Bullock. that Thomas is supposed to have had a son Thomas. Note that this associates Arborfield with Thomas Bullock or Bullock as well as John Blagrave.
One of the Bullocks, Gylbert Bullocke (perhaps the same Gilbert Bullock or perhaps a different one) married Phellippe Elyott (Elliott). Note that George Phipps, apparently the father of Francis Phipps, married Ann Elliott.
An obvious question would be whether the place named Binfield, associated with Thomas Bullock or Bullocke, could have had any connection with the surname Binfield. Joseph Phipps, the Quaker who came from Reading to Pennsylvania rather late – in 1682. In 1665 he married Sarah Binfield in Reading, a daughter of Andrew Binfield and Eleanor (Simonds) Binfield.
Wikipedia refers to Binfield as though it’s simply named for an “open land where bent-grass grows,” supposedly based on the Old English beonet and feld. That, of course, does not preclude the possibility of a family using this surname and associated with the area at some point.
One genealogist’s page speculates that the surname “may well have originated in the Berkshire parish of that name.” The same page refers to a Richard Benfield of Gray’s Inn in 1639. Sir Constantine Henry Phipps, twin brother of Francis Phipps’s daughter Ann Phipps who married George Reeves who died in Virginia, was admitted to Gray’s Inn in 1678.
Again, the Quaker Joseph Phipps is supposed to have married a daughter of Eleanor (Simonds) Binfield. An article about the Bullock family in Berkshire notes that the “Barkham Registers are full of the Bullock family and also of the Simonds family.” The page also notes that land in Arborfield was exchanged during the reign of John between a Bullock and a Simonds.
All of this suggests a strong possibility that Francis Phipps of Reading could have been related to Joseph Phipps, the Quaker who was imprisoned in Reading (which should be obvious anyway). If so, then we could guess that it could very well have been because of religious differences that no mention of him seems to surface in sources pertaining to the family of Francis.
- early 1620s: Col. John Jeaffreson, London merchant involved in the Virginia Company
- 1621: The Virginia Company sent surveyor John Phipps of the London area to Virginia
- 1623: Col. John Jeaffreson was appointed by the king to be a part of a commission; the king wanted this commission to pressure the Virginia assembly to dissolve the Virginia Company, but Jeaffreson “took no part” in such actions
- 1624-1625: Col. John Jeaffreson became an original settler on St. Kitts in the Caribbean; said to have also lived in Virginia
- Aug 1640, Reading, Berkshire: Joseph Phipps, who became Quaker and became an early settler of Pennsylvania, was born in Reading; was he somehow related to the same family from which came Francis Phipps of Reading? If there were earlier non-conformist orientations in this Joseph’s family, could that family have become disowned and effectively detached from association with Francis?
- about 1649, England: George Reeves was born, who later married Anna (Ann) Phipps
- 1649, Reading, co. Berkshire, England: Francis Phipps of Reading was Surveyor of Highways, according to H.R. Phipps’s article
- 1650s: Col. John Jeaffreson returned to England after amassing a fortune through his endeavors on St. Kitts in the Caribbean; bought estate at Dullingham House, co. Cambridgeshire
- 1655-1656, prob. Reading, co. Berkshire, England: Anna (Ann) Phipps was born to Francis Phipps/Anne Sharpe, along with her twin brother Constantine
- 12 July 1660, Reading, co. Berkshire, England: Anne (Sharpe) Phipps, wife of Francis, was buried
- 1660: Col. John Jeaffreson of St. Kitt died, with his will dated 4 Sep 1660 and proved 1 Oct 1660 (Prerogative Court of Canterbury), and with his widow Sarah, formerly widow of Francis Phipps, still living on 4 Sep 1660
- 1660 or later: Francis Phipps remarried to Sarah, widow of Col. John Jeaffreson, according to Caribbeana and the Notes Vol. 4 volume of Crisp, Visitation of England and Wales; H.R. Phipps says they “possibly” married
- 1665, Reading, Berkshire, England: Joseph Phipps, the Quaker, married Sarah Binfield in Reading; again, could they have been related to Francis’s family but not recognized due to religious differences? Are there any documented ties to earlier non-conformity, and if so, could they tie into the earlier Lollard Phips family of Hughenden? Hughenden is only about 20 miles northeast of Reading, and that is not as the crow flies. Some other family members, somewhere, MUST have disowned them, and one could have walked to Hughenden from Reading (or vice versa).
- 28 Jan 1667, apparently Reading, co. Berkshire, England: Will of Francis Phipps mentioned daughter Anna and son Constantine, among others
- 23 Sep 1675, Lee, co. Kent, England: George Reeves of London married Anna Phipps of Lee; they (or at least he) appears to have ended up in Middlesex Co., Virginia
- 2 Oct 1683, St. Kitts: James Phipps and Joseph Crispe appointed representatives of a general assembly for the Leeward Islands
- 30 Dec 1685, St. Kitts: Capt. James Phipps and Capt. Joseph Crispe in list of officers of the Leeward Islands
- 1688/1689, Middlesex Co., Virginia and Middlesex Co., England: George Reeves appears to have died in 1688 in Middlesex County, Virginia, with his will probated in London in 1689
- 1689, St. Kitts: The French attacked the island, apparently killing Capt. James Phipps, son of Francis Phipps of Reading, Berkshire, England, in the process
- 12 May 1708, St. Kitts: The will of Joseph Crisp (Crispe) of St. Kitts, proved 23 Dec 1713, named daughter Mary Phipps, grandson Joseph Phipps, and granddaughters Elizabeth, Mary, and Susanna Phipps
Family group of Col. John Jeaffreson:
- Col. John Jeaffreson of Dullingham, co. Cambridgeshire, early settler on St. Kitts, said to have also lived in Virginia, died 1660
- 1st wife: Mary Parkyns (Parkins) of co. Nottinghamshire, who he married after returning from the Caribbean, children:
- 2nd wife: Sarah, who married Francis Phipps after Jeaffreson’s death
Family groups in the Phipps line:
Note that one possibly complicating factor is that children of Francis Phipps are listed as by his marriage to Anne Sharpe in The Four Visitations of Berkshire, but as by undefined 1st wife in Caribbeana. Evidently his marriage to Anne Sharpe was his 2nd marriage, not his first, with his marriage to Sarah, widow of Col. John Jeaffreson, supposedly constituting his 3rd marriage. No references to children by his 1st and 3rd marriages have been found.
It should also be noted that Pownoll William Phipps, in his book The Life of Colonel Pownoll Phipps, shows different parents for Francis of Reading, Berkshire than is shown below. He instead refers to the father of the Francis who married Anne Sharpe as being a Col. William Phipps, a yeoman of Lincolnshire. One would think, however, that the pedigree presented in The Four Visitations of Berkshire might be more authentic.
- Robert Phipps of Nottingham, m. Isabel Bromley, d. 1615? (administration 18 Jan 1615/6), children:
- George Phipps of Walton Hall (Edwalton) near Nottingham, co. Nottinghamshire, m. 1606 to Anne (Ann) Elliott, widow of John Power, children:
- Francis Phipps (of generation 2, below), b. abt 1610
- Caleb Phips, said in the Visitations to have d. without issue, but H.R. Phipps sound that he m. Ellenor Lambe and had 6 ch. bef. 1652
- Anne (Ann) Phipps
- Judith Phipps
- Anthony Phipps
- William Phipps
- Father: Francis Phipps, Sr., of Reading, b. abt 1610
- 1st wife: Avis, widow of Foster, then Hicks, with no ch. shown in the Visitations
- 2nd wife: Anne (Ann) Sharpe, children:
- Francis Phipps, born 1644, became rector of Upton on Severn, m. Bridget Fleetwood; he was mentioned in 1682 in the Jeaffreson papers
- George Phipps, baptized 1645, in London in 1674
- James Phipps, baptized 1649, d. young, “probably” d. as infant, not to be confused with the later son James
- Thomas Phipps, baptized 1650/1, m. Elizabeth, d. 1671; was “of Staples Inn” in London, presumably Staple Inn, which was an Inn of Chancery associated with barristers
- Anne (Ann) Phipps, baptized 1652, buried 1656, not to be confused with the later dau. Ann
- Capt. James Phipps, baptized 1653, apprenticed to Mr. Stamper of London (note later family connections with the Stamper family in Virginia and North Carolina), moved to the Caribbean prob. 1675, became prominent on Antigua and then on St. Kitts, killed in 1689 by the French during a siege on St. Kitts according to a couple sources, died in 1695 according to another; one of his executors was Christopher Jeaffreson, apparently son of Col. John Jeaffreson; James Phipps married Susanna Clarke of St. Kitts
- Mary Phipps, baptized 1654 m. Rev. John Jackson, rector of Lee, co. Kent 1673, d. 1685
- Anne (Anna or Ann) twin of Constantine Henry, married George Reeves who “deserted her & died in Virginia;” she d. 1693 according to one souce, before 3 Apr 1695 according to another, after living with her sister Mary at Lee, co. Kent
- Constantine Henry, twin of Anna, baptized 1656, knighted, became Lord Chancellor of Ireland, at one point was agent for St. Kitts (1709); supposedly unrelated to Sir William Phips, governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, and yet William’s widow left him a “great silver tankard;” Constantine is said to have emigrated to Maine with his uncle James, but he doesn’t appear to have had an uncle James (past posts have noted how biographies of Sir William appear suspicious at best); d. 1723 at the Middle Temple, Westminster, co. Middlesex, England; his son William married Catherine Annesley and had son Constantine, who became Baron Mulgrave
- 3rd wife: Sarah, widow of Col. John Jeaffreson, children:
- Ashmole, Elias, The Antiquities of Berkshire, 1723, p. cxxii
- Ashmole, Elias, The Visitation of Berkshire, 1664-6, 1882, p. 14
- Birch, Chris, The Milk Jug Was a Goat: Two Families, Two Caribbean Islands, 1635-1987, 2011
- Brenner, Robert, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London’s Overseas Traders, 1550-1653, 1993, 2003, p. 125
- A Brief History of Dullingham
- Capt. Samuel Jefferson (Find A Grave)
- A Catalogue of Notable Middle Templars, p. 192
- Chelsea Sun to Shine on Blagrave Sculpture (Get Reading, Reading, Berkshire)
- Constantine Phipps, Lord Chancellor of Ireland (Wikipedia)
- Cooper, Thompson, Men of the Time: A Dictionary of Contemporaries, 11th ed. 1884, s.v. John Cordy Jeaffreson, pp. 629-630
- Crawford, G.P., “Vachell, of Coley, Reading,” Quarterly Journal of the Berks Archaeological and Architectural Society, October 1893, p. 67
- Crisp, Frederick Arthur, ed., Visitation of England and Wales, Notes Vol. 4, 1893, Jeaffreson pedigree, pp. 59-63, see at top of p. 60
- Crisp, Frederick Arthur, ed., Visitation of England Wales, Notes Vol. 8, 1909, “Pedigree of Phipps,” pp. 156-161
- Cruise Passengers Up 10% in St. Kitts (The Muffin Post; includes Jeaffreson info)
- Davis, N. Darnell, The Cavaliers and Roundheads of Barbados 1650-1652, 1887, p. 19
- Dils, Joan, “Henley and the River Trade in the Pre-Industrial Period,” Journal of the Henley-on-Thames Archaeological & Historical Group, Winter 1987, pp. 20-28, at p. 22 (pdf)
- Doumerc, Éric, Caribbean Civilisation: The English-Speaking Caribbean Since Independence, 2003, p. 21
- Dullingham (British History Online)
- Dullingham House (The List)
- Dullingham House, Newmarket, England (Parks & Gardens UK)
- Duncan, Leland Lewis, and Arthur Oswald Barron, The Register of All the Marriages, Christenings and burials in the Church of S. Margaret, Lee, in the County of Kent, from 1579 to 1754, 1888, p. 7
- Edwards and Callender, Saint Bartholomew’s Hospital Reports, Vol. 3, 1867, p. 3
- Foster, Joseph, ed., London Marriage Licences, 1521-1869, 1887, p. 1124
- The Four Visitations of Berkshire, Vol. 2, p. 195
- Gibson, Carrie, Empire’s Crossroads: A History of the Caribbean from Columbus to the Present Day, 2014
- H.R. Phipps, “Phipps Families of Berkshire,” The Berks, Bucks & Oxon Archaeological Journal, April 1912, pp. 14-20
- History of the Royal Berkshire Militia, 1897, p. 77
- Hough, Samuel J., and Penelope R.O. Hough, The Beinecke Lesser Antilles Collection at Hamilton College, 1994, p. 194
- Jeaffreson, Christopher (ed. by John Cordy Jeaffreson), A Young Squire of the Seventeenth Century, from the Papers (A.D. 1676-1686) of Christopher Jeaffreson, of Dullingham House, Cambridgeshire, Vol. 1, 1878 | Same, Vol. 2 (1878)
- Jefferson’s Ancestry (The Jefferson Encyclopedia)
- John Jeaffreson Memorial (Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Clopton; about a different John Jeaffreson, believed to be related, with a bit of info on the Col. John Jeaffreson of our discussion)
- “Minutes of the Council and General Court, 1622-1629,” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 30, 1922, p. 49
- Mitchell, Learnice, and Susan M. Kenyon, A Brief Sketch of St. Thomas’ Anglican Church, Middle Island, St. Kitts, 2013 (pdf)
- Noble, Mark, The Lives of the English Regicides, Vol. 1, 1798, pp. 96-97
- Oliver, V. Langford, ed., Caribbeana, Vol. 1, 1910, pp. 67-76
- Oliver, V. Langford, The History of the Island of Antigua, p. lxviii
- Oliver, V. Langford, More Monumental Inscriptions: Tombstones of the British West Indies, 1993, pp. 122. 190
- Phipps, Pownoll W., The Life of Colonel Pownoll Phipps, with Family Records, 1894
- Rylands, W. Harry, ed., The Four Visitations of Berkshire, Vol. 1, 1907, pp. 19-20
- Sheridan, Richard B., Sugar and Slavery: An Economic History of the British West Indies, 1623-1775, 1994, p. 84
- Simonds, Beatrice M., Book on History, Stories & Customs of the Parish of Arborfield and the Liberty of Newland, 1922 (Arborfield Local History Society)
- Sir Constantine Phipps (Oxford Index)
- Sir Constantine Phipps, 1656-1723 (Royal Berkshire History)
- “St. Kitts,” Notes and Queries, 9th series, Vol. 12, Dec. 3, 1903, p. 455
- Thomas Warner (Wikisource)
- “A Typical Young Squire,” The Literary World, London, 23 Nov 1877, pp. 321-323
- Uncovering the Secrets of St. Kitts (The Daily Beast; about Jeaffreson)