Benjamin Phipps of Brunswick County, Virginia

Earlier posts have discussed the life and family of Benjamin Phipps (and other family members) of Brunswick County, Virginia. Here are some facts about him:

Benjamin Phipps:

  • Born: 25 Feb 1761 (family Bible at Library of VA)
  • Died: 28 Jan 1845 (family Bible at Library of VA)>

Children of Benjamin Phipps (Phipps and Steed Family Papers at Univ. of NC):

  1. Winfield Phipps
    • Born about 1801 VA (1850 census)
    • Married (1) Eliza M. Powell 13 Nov 1828 (family Bible at Library of VA)
    • Married (2) Julia Ann King 28 Sep 1837 (Julia Ann King Phipps papers at Library of VA)
    • Resided Brunswick Co., VA 23 Oct 1850 (1850 census)
    • Died 1860 (Julia Ann King Phipps papers at Library of VA)
  2. James N. Phipps
    • Born about 1804 VA (1850 census), born 10 July 1806 (family Bible at Library of VA); notes on back of 1845 Brunswick Co., VA summons specifically call Jas N. Phipps a son of Benjamin
    • Married Mary (“Polly”) Steed (called Polly Phipps in 1846 will of her father Jedathan Steed); Jas. N. Phipps and wife Mary are named in 1845 Brunswick Co. summons; Polly was common period nickname for Mary
    • Resided Brunswick Co., VA 23 Oct 1850 in household of brother Winfield (1850 census)
    • Children (mentioned in 1846 will of their grandfather Jedathan Steed):
      • Elizabeth L. Phipps
      • Eugene B. Phipps

The family Bible includes mentions of other individuals as well. The name Williamson Phipps also appears in Georgia records pertaining to the Cherokee removal. Littleton Phipps is also said to have moved to Georgia. (Note the Georgia references in the preceding post.) Here is what is found in the family Bible record, as noted in an earlier post:

Benjmin Phipps was born Feb the 25th dayt 176[?]
Wilson Phipps was born 29th March 1792
William Phipps was born June 13th 1793
Martha Phipps was born March 1 1795
Elizabeth Phipps was born Jun 25th 1796
Mary Phipps was born Decr. 9th 1797
Williamson Phipps was born November 25th 1798
Littleton Phipps was born April 3rd 1801
Winfield Phipps was born June 14 1802
James N. Phipps was born July 10th 1806

The wife of Benjamin Phipps is said to have been Lucy “Turbeyfield,” with that surname appearing in a variety of forms. If so, as noted earlier, this may connect him with the Betty Tayloe Corbin, born 1764, who had Constantine John Phipps of England as her godfather although born in Virginia.

The obituary of Benjamin is found in the Richmond Enquirer, published in Richmond, Virginia on 11 February 1845 (p. 3). Note that his age corresponds to the birthdate mentioned above.

Note also that he is referred to as a Revolutionary War soldier. Interestingly, the Revolutionary War pension application file of Benjamin Phips or Phipps of Grayson County, Virginia makes it clear that he was born about the same time (1761 or 1762).


Died, at his residence in the county of Brunswick, Va., on the 28th of January 1845, Mr. BENJAMIN PHIPPS, aged 83 years, 11 months, and 3 days, leaving eight children and many friends and acquaintances to lament their loss. Mr. Phipps was a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and always manifested a lively interest for the perpetuation of the liberties which his patriotism and valor aided to establish. Peace to his ashes!

The Mississippi, Georgia, and Alabama papers will please copy. [Presumably this refers to the above obituary, and not the unrelated one which follows.]

Two Timelines: Do They Connect?

Such factors as dates and deaths make it appear as those these two timelines could not connect. Yet strong similarities make it appear as though they might actually connect in some way or another which so far is unclear.

The Phips or Phips or Fiphs, etc. family in Cumberland County, Virginia seems to have likely been related to the John Fips/Fipps family of Lunenburg and Charlotte Counties, Virginia. That family married into the Witcher family, with a strong presence in Surry and Ashe Counties, North Carolina.

Cumberland County, Virginia was formed from Goochland, that county which has kept resurfacing in research even when not looking for it. The other constantly recurring county (to a remarkable degree) has been Brunswick. Lunenburg was formed from Brunswick, and Charlotte from Lunenburg.

Timeline 1: Cumberland County, Virginia

  • 1749, Cumberland Co., VA: County formed from Goochland County
  • 1750, Cumberland Co., VA: Richard Phips, orphan of Lewis Phips, was bound out
  • 1753, Cumberland Co., VA: Richard Phipps added to list of tithables
  • 1755, Cumberland Co., VA: William Phipps bound out by his mother “Tibitha” Phipps
  • 13 Nov 1755, Cumberland Co., VA: Susannah Fips witnessed will of Sanburn (Sanborn) Woodson; she proved it in 1756 as Susanah Fips; a Woodson of Goochland County gave security; note that there was a later individual supposedly born in Surry Co., NC and named Sanburn Woodson Cockerham, and a 1741 Goochland County deed was to John and Mary “Phelps” and witnessed by a Cockerham
  • 26 Aug 1760, Cumberland Co., VA: Sheriff found that Samuel “Phelps” was no longer in his bailiwick and so was unable to obtain scire facias, which is a writ showing why something shouldn’t be enforced; wild and crazy thought, but could this be Samuel Phips of Ashe Co., NC, since he seems to have moved? (But see 1763)
  • 29 Dec 1761, Southam Parish, Cumberland Co., VA: Tabitha Fiphs mentioned as poor person
  • 22 Dec 1762, Southam Parish, Cumberland Co., VA: Tabitha Phips mentioned as poor person
  • 1763, Cumberland Co., VA: Deed, Patrick Corner of Buckingham Co., VA to Samuel “Phelps” of Cumberland Co., witnessed by a Walker and a Woodson; Susannah “Fips” had witnessed a Woodson will there in 1755; note the Walker connection again, if the same Walker family which we’ve discussed extensively in the past

Timeline 2: Georgia

  • 1 Dec 1797, Elbert Co., GA: Deed, John Staples of Elbert Co. to Lewis Phipps of Elbert Co., land in Elbert Co.
  • 18 Apr 1798, Elbert Co., GA: Deed, Lewis Phipps and his wife Tabitha of Elbert Co. to Francis Higginbotham of Elbert Co., land in Elbert Co. adjoining William Bradley (see 1799), signed by Lewis Phipps and Tabitha Phips; her name, but apparently not his, was spelled Phips and she signed with an X
  • 18 Oct 1798, Elbert Co., GA: Deed, John Greenwood and George Greenwood, executors of estate of John Greenwood, deceased, of Oglethorpe Co., to John Ham of Elbert Co., land in Elbert Co., witnessed by Lewis Phipps
  • 12 Jan 1799, Elbert Co., GA: Will of William Bradley, witnessed by Lewis Phipps
  • 10 Sep 1807, Elbert Co., GA: Marriage, Benjamin Witcher to Frances McLeroy
  • 18-19 Dec 1810, Elbert Co., GA: Sale from estate of Benjamin Higginbotham, Lewis Phipps mentioned
  • 16 Dec 1811, Baldwin Co., MS: Deed, Alexander Cunningham of Baldwin Co. to Benjamin Witcher of Elbert Co., GA, land in Elbert Co., GA, witnessed by Ambrose Witcher
  • 19 Oct 1812, Elbert Co., GA: Deed, James Wood, sheriff of Elbert Co., to James Thompson of Madison Co., GA, land in Elbert Co., GA, witnessed by Lewis Phipps
  • 22 Dec 1812, Elbert Co., GA: Marriage, Lewis Phipps to Patsy Faulkner
  • 19 Oct 1813, Elbert Co., GA: Deed, James Wood, sheriff of Elbert Co., to James Thompson of Madison Co., GA, land in Elbert Co., witnessed by Lewis Phipps
  • 1815, Elbert Co., GA: Will of John Rowsey, Sr. refers to “my daughter Tabitha Phipps
  • 14 Oct 1820, Madison Co., GA: Nathan Williford of Madison Co appointed his friend John Phipps of Madison Co., GA as attorney to sell land in Pulaski Co., formerly Wilkerson Co.
  • 15 July 1822, Madison Co., GA: Deed, John P. Vaughan of Madison Co. to Nathan L. Hutchins of Elbert Co., GA, various items of personal property, witnessed by John Phipps, proved 22 July 1822 by John Phipps
  • 11 Mar 1823, Madison Co., GA: 2 deeds, William Power of Madison Co. to David Power of Madison Co., land in Madison Co., both witnessed by Benjamin Witcher

The Phelps, Phips, and Anthony Families

The Phelps and Anthony families

A line of evidence connects a “Phelps” family in 18th century (1700s) Virginia with the Anthony family. We’ve discussed surveyor connections at numerous points, beginning with the surveyor partnership of John Phips and William Harris in Jamestown. This Phelps family included at least one surveyor, and the family was associated with a later man named William Harris, and they dealt with the Anthony family.

This Anthony family, in turn, appears to connect to the Anthony family which later surfaces in Surry County, North Carolina, with an Anthony daughter – Keziah Anthony – marrying George Phips. Further, at least one surveyor was included in this Anthony familyr.

Would one family branch call itself Phelps at the same time that another branch would call itself Phips or Fipps or Phipps or Fips? Based on anecdotal evidence regarding various families, it certainly would seem possible.

And we’ve discussed how the Phripp family was very likely another part of the same family, and how the Phibbs family of Ireland was probably tied to the Phipps family of England. We’ve also discussed what appears to be a clear connection of some sort to a family called Fitts or Fitz.

Part of the reason for this might have been simply the fluidity of names, at the same time that the family (or families) seemed on the move, where their surname was often unfamiliar to locals because they were newcomers. If your last name is Phipps, no doubt you’ve been called Phibbs, Phelps, and Phillips at various times in your life. It appears that there are families in modern times which have used the Phelps and Phipps names more or less interchangeably.

The reason could also be because of some sort of an undefined scandal, as we’ve discussed before, and perhaps later the very real and documented issue of Phipps or Phips individuals who were Tories or even British officials in America around the time of the Revolution.

Far too many connections to the Phelps family exist to rule out the possibility that this could be a part of the same family as “Phips,” “Fips,” “Phipps,” etc. For example, this Phelps family appears to have been related to someone named John Pleasants. We’ve discussed how the Burton family – closely associated with the Fipps family in Goochland County, Virginia (the orphans there were bound out to a Burton) and with George Reeves (he married a Burton) who was the father in law of Samuel Phips in Ashe County, North Carolina.

We’ve discussed other surname associations in the past which involve this Phelps family. Those alone seemed compelling reasons to wonder whether this “Phelps” family could have been Phips or Phipps. But a close association as well with an Anthony family which married into a Phips family of North Carolina?

Was the “Phelps” family in this case in Virginia the same family as “Phips” in Surry County, North Carolina? Surry County has been discussed in previous posts as a destination point for family members of John Fips who died about 1768 in Charlotte County, Virginia.

The Anthony family in Virginia

In the case of the Anthony family in Surry County, North Carolina, secondary sources claim the family was in Goochland County, Virginia earlier, the same county we’ve been discussing in connection with the Phips family. Not only that, but the 1816 will of Thomas Anthony of Surry County, North Carolina specifically refers to his daughter Keziah Anthony who married George Phips.

An Anthony family appears to have been amassing land in Goochland County around the mid-18th century (1700s), with a John Anthony, possibly the one also appearing in Goochland County, having been appointed surveyor in Albemarle County, a county formed from Goochland. Around the same time, a “Phelps” family was acquiring land in Albemarle and Goochland Counties, presumably the same family.

Several Phelps individuals were present in several Virginia counties and could have been related. A Thomas Phelps who appears in Albemarle and Goochland Counties in the 1740s and 1750s may possibly have been the same as, or at least related to, the Thomas Phelps who received a patent in Brunswick County on 12 January 1753.

Around this same time, the name William Phelps appears in Albemarle, Goochland, and Bedford Counties. What’s interesting about him (considering all of our many discussions about surveyors and about the Phips and Harris surveyor connection) is that in the 1750s in Bedford he was appointed surveyor. About the same time, he brought a case against a certain William Harris, which was dismissed.

He also had a major case against a Payne there in the 1760s, and one must wonder whether there might have been a connection to the Payne family we’ve discussed in connection with Lewellyn Phipps who married a Cook whose mother was a Payne. That family seems probably related to the William Cook who served in the Revolution from Caroline County as a substitute for Joseph “Wiltcher,” as transcribed (Witcher? – a name which married into the Fips family), with the page scans apparently absent from online databases.

Thomas Phelps of Albemarle County appears to have sold land in Lunenburg County in 1764 to John Anthony of Lunenburg. Was this the same John Anthony who earlier, in 1745, was appointed a surveyor in Albemarle County?

Was this Thomas Phelps related to the Thomas Phelps who left a will in Albemarle County in 1751 which was witnessed by a certain Chicely Crisp or Chiceley Crisp, depending on transcription? Chicheley is the name of a village and parish in Buckinghamshire in England. Buckinghamshire is where the Phips family who were Lollards of Hughenden lived.

The person referred to as Chicely Crisp may have used another form of his name, since nothing comes up readily in searches using either spelling. Perhaps he was only there briefly, or perhaps he went by another given name. A Nicholas Crisp shows up in records in Albemarle County as early as 1688, when he witnessed the will of one Anthony Slocumb. The name Nicholas Crisp also shows up as a justice of the general court in Albemarle in 1714.

We have dealt in multiple past posts with a direct connection between the Phipps family and the Crisp or Crispe family, which was associated with the Caribbean and with the Jeaffreson/Jefferson family. And, for what it’s worth, a William Crisp was a surveyor in 1750 in Augusta County.

We have discussed Brunswick County, Virginia over and over, and it has been amazing to see how many times that location has come up in Phipps research without looking for it. Secondary sources appear to connect a John Phelps of Albemarle and Lunenburg Counties with Brunswick County.

He appears to have served in the House of Burgesses with the father of George Washington and with Peter Jefferson, father of Thomas Jefferson. We have noted various indirect connections to Thomas Jefferson in past posts, especially through the Epps line, and is it worth noting that Peter Jefferson was yet another surveyor?

Phelps Island in the James River

Mid-18th century (1700s) records refer to Phelps Island in connection with the Phelps family already mentioned. That land eventually passed into the hands of John Hartwell Cocke, Jr. We’ve mentioned connections to the Cocke family in earlier posts.

The Hartwell name may have come from the same source as in the name Hartwell Epps, who was a Virginia War of 1812 soldier. (We’ve discussed various Epps links, with the Epps family tying into the Burton, Reeves, and Phips families.)

Phelps Island was, at one time, in the middle of what was called the Fluvanna River, in Albemarle County. The Fluvanna was the name given to a part of the James River. The Fluvanna name was later dropped. A Phelps plantation was either on the island or located very near there.

The island, however, appears to have disappeared. Although it shows up in an early map, modern satellite views and maps show no such island. (The Seven Islands, a bit further west, are still there.) Presumably Phelps Island is either under water, or the river changed its course and the land it occupied is no longer an island, or perhaps the island was removed for navigation.

This is all a bit west of present-day New Canton, Virginia. The land was once in Albemarle County, with Albemarle having been formed from Goochland County, but today where the island sat, if the river is running the same course, is right on the line separating Buckingham County and Fluvanna County. This is a bit east of where the Slate River joins the James River, and west of the John H. Cocke (that name again) Memorial Bridge.

Buckingham County is where Jones Phipps surfaced in a surveyor’s plat book in 1804. A secondary source claims that he may have also been known as Phelps. Also, a Mary Ann Phipps in Buckingham County in 1771 is said to have married a James Pendleton, with a Harris as his brother in law. And in 1771, a Richard Fipps advertised that he had found an unclaimed horse in Buckingham County.

The various Virginia locations mentioned here are not as disparate as they sound. Fluvanna County was formed from the original Henrico County shire. (Goochland was the first county formed from the shire of Henrico.)

Buckingham County was formed from Albemarle. Albemarle County was formed from part of Goochland. Lunenburg was formed from part of Brunswick. Bedford County was formed from part of Lunenburg.

George Phips, son in law of Thomas Anthony

The George Phips who married Keziah Anthony, daughter of Thomas Anthony, is said to have been born about 1785 in North Carolina. The two are said to have married in Surry County, North Carolina in 1807. There is a marriage bond, dated 2 July 1807, extant for the couple, according to a typescript.

George supposedly  died about 1830, which may or may not be correct. A Yadkin County, North Carolina file regarding his estate is dated much later – 1854.

The will of Thomas Anthony, dated 8 October 1816 in Surry County, North Carolina, outlines the following:

  • 50 acres to his son James
  • 100 acres, where George Phips “now lives,” to his grandchildren William, Millia, and David, identified as sons and daughters of Thomas Anthony’s daughter Keziah Phips
  • 1 bed, 1 chest, and 6 plates to his daughter Keziah Phips
  • 130 acres to his daughter Millia (not to be confused with his granddaughter Millia), adjoining Joseph Aldridge
  • 1 bed, 2 cows and their calves, 4 hogs to his daughter Millia
  • 1 shilling to his daughter Sarah Smith (no explanation)
  • 1 bed to his granddaughter Elizabeth Smith
  • His “negro fellow” named Jef and the rest of his land to be sold, and the money to be divided equally among his 3 sons John, David, and William
  • 1 dish, 6 plates to the children of his daughter Millia Anthony
  • Obadiah Martin appointed executor (he supposedly had married a Martin)

Note that this was a Surry County will. Yet the 1854 estate file of George Phipps (as spelled this time, Phips earlier) refers to the land given to the grandchildren as being in Yadkin County. How can this be?

That’s because Yadkin County was not created until 1850. Then, it was formed from the part of Surry County which was south of the Yadkin River.

The estate file refers to the three grandchildren who, in the will, were called William, Millia, and David Phips. In the estate file, however, they are referred to as William, Millie, and David Phipps. A petition in that file refers to land willed to them by Thomas Anthony, deceased. This land is now referred to as being “situate in the County of Yadkin, on the waters of Deep Creek.”

In addition, an 1855 Yadkin County survey report in the estate file refers to “the heirs of George Phipps (deceased)” on Deep Creek. There, the woman formerly called Millia, then Millie, is now called Milly.


Many connections which appear to perhaps connect the Phips or Phipps and the Phelps families have been found, more than can reasonably be recounted here. (See past posts linked below.) The idea that the Phelps family might be yet another branch of the Phips or Fipps etc. family may seem preposterous, not just because the names are somewhat different, but because so many places are represented.

They were clearly, however, people on the move, as was the family which called itself Fips, Phips, Phipps, etc. Perhaps that had something to do with the surveyor profession. This was an extremely lucrative profession, but perhaps could not remain so forever, unless one moved on.

Otherwise, the demand for surveyor work would still be there, but that demand would diminish over time. When new territories opened up, however, virtually everyone suddenly needed to hire a surveyor.

Some research questions

  • Who were the parents of this George Phips or Phipps who married Keziah Anthony?
  • Does Thomas Anthony indeed connect to the Anthony family with land holdings in Goochland County, and if so, do they connect to the Phips, Fipps, Fop family of Goochland, including the 1742 orphans, Joseph and Benjamin Fipps?
  • If the same Anthony family, then was the Phelps family associated with them the same as the Phips, Fipps, Fop family of Goochland County?
  • If the above was the case, then was the William Harris who was sued in the 1750s by surveyor William Phelps related to the William Harris who served as a surveyor with John Phips out of Jamestown beginning in 1621, or to William Harris’s son James who was was supposed to have been a surveyor with the 2nd generation surveyor John Phips? This William Harris referred to in Bedford County in the 1750s in connection with William Phelps would presumably have been the same William Harris mentioned in connection with him in the 1740s in Albemarle County. Albemarle was formed from part of Goochland.  One 1757 deed from Bedford County connects William Harris, William Phelps, and John Payne of Goochland County. William Phelps and William Harris were adjacent landowners in a 1749 Albemarle County patent.
  • Could the Phelps plantation in Albemarle County (later Fluvanna; see 1748 patent in Albemarle) have been a Phips or Phipps plantation? Could this have been the same family? Evidently this was at or very near Phelps Island in what was once termed the Fluvanna River. That was a name formerly given to the James River west of Columbia.
  • What was the involvement of the Phelps family in Lunenburg County, and could they connect there in some way with the John Fips or Phips family of Lunenburg? We’ve discussed various Cumberland County, Virginia connections. Was John “Felps” of Cumberland County (formed from Goochland) who moved to Lunenburg County in 1755 related to John Fips/Phips who lived in Lunenburg shortly before he died about 1768 in newly formed Charlotte County? In the past, we’ve mentioned various connections and bits of evidence which appear to suggest some sort of connection between the Phelps/Felps family of Goochland and Lunenburg Counties, etc. with the Fips/Phips family of Lunenburg and Charlotte Counties.

Some relevant resources

Essex and the Phyppe or Phyppes Family of England

The following is a collection of records which emphasize “Phyppe” or “Phyppes” and similar spellings, with much emphasis on Essex and the London area. One factor that is interesting is the number of family members who were involved in the cloth or clothing trades. We have the following in the list below:

  • A dyer at 1325
  • A draper at 1496
  • A “hacher” (?) (explained below) at 1499
  • A tailor at 1602
  • A clothier at 1615
  • A tailor at 1681

Even as late as 1883, a Dalby Phipps was listed in a directory as a tailor at Hook Norton. This is in Oxfordshire. He was also barber and church warden (verger). He is said by multiple sources to have spent time at the Red Lion, across the street, around the middle of church services. (See here and here.)

Stephen Phipps, the colonial-era resident of Philadelphia in America, was a tailor.  He acquired land in Philadelphia in 1772. (See also here.) Records pertaining to him appear in the Winterthur Library; see here.

We’ve dealt in the past with the Spitalfield Riots which hit London in 1768. This had to do with journeymen weavers. Some of the looms which were cut to pieces in the riots belonged to Everard and Phipps. The past post dealt with several Phipps individuals in the area who were weavers, one who was a silk mercer, one who was a framework knitter, etc.

That post also dealt with the claim that the Spitalfield weavers had come there as Huguenots before the reign of Louis XIV. This story can be compared to claims that the Phipps AKA Phibbs family of county Sligo, Ireland had come there as Huguenot refugees.

A working hypothesis could be that the Phyppe or Phipps etc. families associated with cloth-related trades in the London/Essex area may tie into the Francis Phipps family of Reading, Berkshire, England, with earlier connections to Nottinghamshire. Some members of that family were known to have London connections as barristers and/or as politicians.

14th century (1300s)

The John Phyppe family set up a wayside cross at Waltham Forest, at a place which became known as Phip’s Cross but later as Whipps Cross. The location was in northeast London, fairly close to Bobbingworth (see 1575).

31 July 1325

A debt record dated 31 July 1325 involves “John the Dyer” as plaintiff. John was a son of Philip Phyppe of Wilton, Wiltshire, described as a merchant of Dorset. He owed £6 to Hugh Sampson, merchant of Southampton in Hampshire (abbreviated Hants).

27 September 1361

William Phyppes was witness to a document dated 27 September 1361 and involving the village of Wottone, likely Hill Wootton in Warwickshire (below at 1546). One of the other persons mentioned was a tailor.


William Phyppes was witness to a document dated 1363 which concerned Wotton, likely Hill Wootton in Warwickshire (below at 1546).

4 November 1369

William Phyppes was a witness in a document dated 4 November 1369 and involving Wotton or Wottone. This was likely Hill Wootton in Wariwickshire (below at 1546).


William Phyppes was a witness in a matter dated 1370 involving Wotton or Wottone. This may have been Hill Wootton in Warwickshire (below at 1546).


A deed which is not from the Essex area but which uses the Phyppe spelling is dated the Saturday after the apostles Philip and James in 45 Edward III (45th year of the reign of Charles II, 1371-1372). This is from William, son of Richard de Bulkylegh of Chedle (Cheadle) to Philip Phyppe of the manor Tymperlegh.

Timperley used to be in Cheshire, but is now in the county of Greater Manchester. This is quite a distance more or less north.

This relationship is also discussed in a feoffment by William de Bulkilegh, rector of the church at Chedle, and Richard de Okelegh, chaplain, to Henry del Scoles and others, chaplains. This was for lands in Tymperlegh and refers to property they had acquired through the “gift and feoffment of Philip Phippe.” This is dated the Thursday before St. George the Martyr in 48 Edward III (1374-1375).

Also a letter of attorney by William, son of Richard de Bulkylegh of Chedle to William de Bulkylegh of Chorlegh concerned the possession of the manor at Tympurlegh by Philip Phippe. This is dated the Saturday after St. Philip and St. James the Apostles, 45 Edward III (1371-1372).

See also a listing at the National Archives for a 1342 lease involving Richard de Bulkylegh

A feoffment was a deed giving someone land in change for a pledge of service. Chedle is today Cheadle in the county of Greater Manchester. The de Bulkylegh or de Bulkilegh family evidently later became known as Bulkeley.

Much has been made of the Rev. Peter Bulkley, a significant Puritan immigrant to America and who appears to likely descend from this family.


A heraldic seal is described in an Essex County record of 1376 which pertains to John Phyppe. This may be the same John Phyppe whose family set up the wayside cross at Waltham Forest (14th century (1300s), above). The John Phyppe of the record, however, was John Phyppe, Jr., of Navestoke in the county of Essex.

The record refers to an oval with a shield of arms, with a cross between some indistinct charges. Navestoke, if the same as Navestock, is in south Essex. This is close to Chipping Ongar, mentioned at several points below.

12 September 1410

A Chichester deed, dated 12 September 1410, was witnessed by John Phyppe. Chichester is in West Sussex in southeast England.

20 December 1463

A deed in the county of Essex is dated 20 December 1463, and is from Thomas Bertylmew (Bartholomew?) of Walden (Saffron Walden), son of William Bertylmew, to William Nooke, John Gale, and John Phyppe of Walden.

This was land on a a lane called “the Fresschwell hundryd.” This would be Freshwell Hundred, and it’s interesting to note that a street called Freshwell does still exist in the town of Saffron Walden today, in the northwest part of the town, between Freshwell Gardens and Bridge Street.

The “Walden” being referred to as the home of the John Phyppe of this deed would be Saffron Walden in Essex.

15 March 1464

A general pardon to a number of individuals included Ralph Phyppe, “late of the same,” meaning Saham (apparently Sohom) in Cambridgeshire, a husbandman.


A 1466 deed in the county of Essex mentions John Phyppe, perhaps the same one mentioned above, or perhaps a son.


Under collectors’ accounts from 1473-1475, which appear to be in Latin, comes a record which refers to “Londonias et in Essex” and to “Henrici Phyppes et Johannis.” “Et” is “and” in Latin.

Is this referring, then, to Henry and John Phyppes in London and in Essex?

23 December 1496

A debt record refers to Simon Phyppes (Phipps), a London draper, as debtor, and Thomas Partriche (Partridge), a London fishmonger, as credit. The amount involved was £12.

Note that this Simon Phyppes was a draper. A draper is defined as someone who sells cloth and dry goods. Note the references to tailors at 1602 and 1681, and to a clothier at 1615. London is not in Essex, but Essex is near London.

In fact, Hornchurch, where the surveyor John Phipps who came to Jamestown, Virginia in 1621 is from, was in John’s day a part of Essex, but is today a part of a London borough.

6 July 1499

A grant confirmation, dated 6 July in 14 Henry VII, refers to land located near “phyppes hache in Enefeld.” The town of Enfield is in the London borough of Enfield.

What a “hache” was is not clear. An old book of Somerset “dialectal and archaic” terms, however, notes that the word was used in the sense of “to hatch, or hatchel flax.” A flax hatchel is pictured here. See also here. Hatcheling flax is the “first process” in making Irish linen, and is also known as heckling flax.

So, it would appear that a good guess is that this was a place where someone named Phyppes was engaged in combing flax in one stage of its processing. This is only a guess, but it appears to be a good one. If so, this would indicate yet more involvement in a cloth-related trade.

Around 1514-47

Various records, especially noticeable in John Foxe’s Actes and Monuments (from which the famous Christian classic Foxe’s Book of Martyrs is derived), refer to individuals named Phyppes, Phyppe, Phippes, Fippe, as Lollards.

These were religious dissenters who dared to believe that they could study the scriptures themselves, that they could pray apart from the Catholic church, and that they should not reverence religious statues and icons.

They suffered severe persecution. “Lollard” is a fairly generic term for a religious dissenter of the period. One must wonder whether there could be a link of some kind to the later Quaker Joseph Phipps from Reading, Berkshire.

The family members who were involved appear to have been concentrated in the parish of Hughenden (now Hughenden Valley) in Buckinghamshire. Buckinghamshire borders (in addition to other places) Greater London and Berkshire.

If the family in Hughenden was connected to the high-society family in nearby Reading, Berkshire, they certainly would have been disowned. The distance from Hughenden to Reading, using modern highways, is only 20.8 miles. Apple Maps suggests that it could be walked in 7 hours and 15 minutes – a long time today, but such walks were common as recently as the 19th century.

26 June 1545

Christopher Phypp was a witness in a deed written in Latin and dated 26 June 1545.

Why Latin? The late Middle Ages is generally understood to be from about 1301 to 1500. This page from the University of Nottingham explains that Latin was often a preferred language for medieval documents.

One reason was that it was easy to abbreviate without misunderstanding. Latin was used in scholarship as late as the 17th century.


A grant of lands in Hylwotton (apparently now Hill Wootton) in Warwickshire “in tenure of Wm. Phyppe” is mentioned in a record of 1546. Although not in Essex, this does involve the Phyppe spelling. This is not very far from Coventry.

22 September 1552 

An inventory dated, apparently, 22 September in 6 Edward 6 (1552) appears to be  from the county of Essex and is headed “Sowthsubury.” This record appears to be an inventory of church goods and mentions Rychard Phyppe.

Today, the railway station of Southbury is in the London borough of Enfield (see 1499, above). Is this the same as “Sowthsubury”?


The case of Phypps v. Croker involved Elizabeth Phypps, a widow, as plaintiff. This was an Oxfordshire case rather than Essex, but it involved the Phypps spelling. Oxfordshire borders Berkshire, among other counties. Berkshire, in turn, borders Greater London.


A deed poll dated 1563 refers to William Phyppes of “Maxstock Maxstoke” (apparently Maxstoke) in Warwickshire.

19 December 1564

The will of John Phipps, a yeoman of East Tilbury in the county of Essex, is dated 19 December 1564.

3 October 1574

A record not from Essex, but from near there in the county of Middlesex, concerns William Fyppes. This concerns the parish of Stebunheth. Stebunheth is better known as Stepney. (See also here.) Stepney was a parish in the historic county (historic counties were superseded by administrative counties) of Middlesex, in the London area.

William Fyppes was a gardener, and William Reynolds was a laborer, both “late” of London. On 3 October in 16 Elizabeth (1574), they stole a gray gelding from Andrew Butcher. The horse was worth £3.

William Reynolds got away, but William Phyppes, as his name is spelled at the bottom of the record, pleaded guilty. As a result, he was sentenced to death by hanging – all this for half-ownership in a £3 horse.

Obviously, not all of the Phyppe, Phipps, etc. family had money. To what extent could that have been the result of religious rifts which we discussed before, with some of the family having become Lollards and, later, Quakers? (Then later, the Civil War (1642-51) brought more family rifts, and then the American Revolution brought still more.)

12 June 1575

Thomas Phyppe married Jane Dynge on 12 June 1575 at Bobbingworth, Essex, England, according to a parish register abstract in Family Search. This is a short distance northeast of London in the Epping Forest district about 3 miles from Chipping Ongar.

Another and perhaps more credible abstract, however, appears in a published account, which refers to the couple as Thomas Phyppes, not Phyppe, and Jone Kynge, not Dynge. Thomas was of “ffulmer” in Cambridgeshire, and Jone’s residence was unstated. They married 12 June 1575.

11 August 1587

A conveyance dated 11 Aug in 29 Elizabeth (1587) involves John Phyppes of Bristol, a stainer, as the party of the first part. What was a stainer? Quick Internet searches suggest that it might have involved wood or possibly wallpaper.

Note that the parents of William Phips (born 1650-51), first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony (but not of Massachusetts), supposedly came from Bristol, the city of this John Phyppes. William’s genealogy and the circumstances of his life, as portrayed in published accounts (including peerage sources, encyclopedic biographies, and a biography by Nathaniel Hawthorne) appear extremely suspect, however, as has been already noted.

As we have earlier discussed, some circumstantial factors suggest a very strong possibility of a link from this William to the Reading, Berkshire Phips family, with fairly direct connections to James II. Could the Bristol branch have been yet another segment of the family which suffered from a family rift of some kind? The evidence suggests a very high likelihood of this.


A record dating from 33 Elizabeth (the 33rd year of the reign of Elizabeth) involves the case of Rooke v. Newman, Phyppe, and others. Although this case is not known to involve Essex, it uses the Phyppe spelling. The matter appears to have involved the notorious Star Chamber.


A record dating from 41 Elizabeth involves the case of Ireland v. Phyppe, Parker, & others. Although this case is not known to involve Essex, it also uses the Phyppe spelling. This case, as well, appears to have involved the Star Chamber.

23 January 1599

A feoffment dated 23 January 1599 mentions land belonging to William Phyppes. This appears to have been in or near Mountsorrel. Mountsorrel is a village in Leicestershire.

Leicestershire is in the Midlands and borders Warwickshire (mentioned above) and Nottinghamshire (where the Phipps family of Reading, Berkshire is supposed to have come from). The nature of feoffments is discussed in Wikipedia, here.

4 March 1602

Anne, wife of John Camber of East Tilbury in the county of Essex, was indicted according to a record of 4 March 1602. See 6 March 1602, below.

6 March 1602

The will of John Camber of East Tilbury in the county of Essex was written 6 March 1602. An online abstract is confusingly formatted, but appears to refer to his godson Thomas Phippes and also to a cousin named Thomas Phippes. An Edward Phippes is also mentioned in connection with the probate; he was “next of kin of the deceased.”

John Camber who wrote the will also mentions his cousin Isabel Harris. Can we assume that she was likely related to the William Harris who came with John Phipps of Essex to Jamestown, Virginia, both as surveyors, in 1621?

Note that an Edward Phippes, a tailor, was of St. Martin in the Fields (in Westminster in London); after he died, his widow Philippa Phippes married William Parker in London on 3 December 1586.

Could this Edward have possibly been the Edward mentioned in the Camber will? A 1592 record refers to expenses for the burial of Edward Phippes at St. Martin in the Fields in 1592; could this have been a late record for the same death?

A 1602 Essex record is an indictment of Anne, wife of John Camber of East Tilbury, evidently because she did not “repayre” to church, apparently meaning that she did not “betake” herself to church. Another record, dated 4 June 1603, is described as a sentence of John Camber of East Tilbury in Essex. Could this actually pertain to his widow?

Actually, this is likely a son, since another will, this one dated 16 February 1626, is of John Camber, gentleman, of Tilbury in Essex. A copy is at the National Archives in Kew.

Reference is made to some John Camber of Essex, who received a passport to travel “beyond the seas,” evidently to help with learning some other language. An earlier (1498) deed refers to a John Camber of Essex


The case of Phypps v. Fleming involved Richard Phypps and his wife Elizabeth. This does not involve Essex, but rather the parish of Tettenhall, in what was then Staffordeshire. This isn’t that far from the location of the 1546 grant, above.

Today, Tettenhall is in the metropolitan borough of Wolverhampton.

22 November 1615

The will of Nicholas Phyppe (see also here), dated 22 November 1615, is not from Essex, but uses the same Phyppe spelling. He was living at Leighe (Leigh), Westbury, Wiltshire, and was a “clothier.” (Notice tailors at 1602 and 1681 and a draper at 1496.) The will was proved 7 June 1616.

He mentions his son Thomas Phippe, “brother Henry Phippe” (Nicholas’s brother, or Thomas’s brother?), sons Edward Phippe and Paule Phippe, wife Johane, son Robert Phippe, daughter Elizabeth Druce, daughter Margery Cogswell, cousin Thomas Phippe, son Nicholas Phippe, sister Rachell, son Henry Phippe.


John Phipps, the surveyor, came to Jamestown, Virginia, supposedly from Hornchurch in Essex, as has been discussed in a number of earlier posts.


A record dated 11 July 1681 from the county of Essex indicts Edward Phipps, blacksmith, and his wife Mary, Edward Phipps, and George Phipps, another blacksmith, along with William Holgate.

All of the Phipps individuals were from Chipping Ongar (see 1575) in the county of Essex, but Holgate was a tailor from Harlow. Harlow is also in Essex.

These individuals assembled in what was described as a riotous and unlawful manner in Chipping Ongar. There they assaulted persons who appeared to be identified as a sheriff and a bailiff. James Phipps was a witness.


Sarah, wife of Edward Phipps, was buried 20 April 1705 in the parish of Ongar in Essex. Chipping Ongar, mentioned a few times above, is located in the parish of Ongar.


A bill and answer from 1727 involves Elizabeth Phypps (Phipps), the widow and administratrix of her late husband Robert Phypps. He had been a London plasterer. Elizabeth was the plaintiff, while the defendant was Catherine Lilly. London and Essex border each other, of course.

See also Phypps (Phipps) v. Lillie, 1729.

Index of locations mentioned above

  • Bristol: 1587
  • Buckinghamshire
    • Hughenden, High Wycombe: Around 1514-47
  •  Cambridgeshire
    • Cambridgeshire generally: 1575
    • Sohom: 1464
  • Cheshire
    • Timperley, now in Greater Manchester: 1371-2
  • Dorset: 1325
  • Essex
    • Bobbingworth: 14th century (1300s), 1575
    • East Tilbury: 1564, 1682 (multiple times)
    • Essex generally: 1466, 1473-5
    • Hornchurch: 1621
    • Navestock: 1376
    • Ongar (parish): 1705
      • Chipping Ongar: 1575, 1681
    • Saffron Walden: 1463
    • Whipps Cross: 14th century (1300s)
  • Leicestershire
    • Mountsorrel: 1599
  • London
    • Enfield, London borough: 1499, 1552
    • London generally: 1473-5, 1496, 1727
    • Stepney, London borough of Tower Hamlets: 1574
    • Westminster, London: 1602
  • Oxfordshire: 1558-79
  • Staffordshire
    • Tettenhall, now in Wolverhampton: 1603-25
  • Warwickshire
    • Hill Wootton: 1361, 1363, 1369, 1370, 1546
    • Maxstoke: 1563
  • West Sussex
    • Chichester: 1410
  • Wiltshire
    • Westbury: 1615
    • Wilton: 1325

The Unpopular Phipps Brothers & Their Unpopular Grandfather

Regarding the last post, another probable reason for the Phips or Phipps family in Virginia to not want to draw attention to their British gentry connections concerned the slave trade. We know that some of the family in Virginia were slave holders, and some – at least the “Phripp” family, assuming they were actually “Phipps” – were even involved in the slave trade.

By shortly before the Revolutionary War, however, the slave trade was becoming increasingly unpopular in Virginia. Efforts were already being made to abolish it, although slavery itself would persist for a number of decades. Much of the opposite to the trade was economic-based: The slave trade was siphoning money out of Virginia.

What began to develop was a division of opinion, with Virginia trying to hinder slave trading through prohibitive taxes, while the British government was actively supporting the trade.

By the latter part of the 18th century (1700s), even the common masses in England were rallying against slavery. The Constantine John Phipps discussed in the last post, who tried to impose the Stamp Act on North Carolina, had a brother named Henry.

A major scandal developed in 1791 when Henry Phipps (1755-1831) spoke out publicly against William Wilberforce’s call for abolition. Phipps said he had spent 10 or 12 months (sources differ) in Jamaica, and while there had never seen a slave mistreated.

That wasn’t the only thing he said. When voters of Scarborough voted against the slave trade, Phipps claimed voter fraud.

He called the petitions against slavery “contemptible,” being derived from, in his estimation, “school boys, farmers, mechanics, and others no way interested in the commerce of the kingdom.” As a result, locals went into a rage and burned Henry Phipps in effigy.

According to London’s Evening Mail, as reported 16 May 1792, the effigy of Henry Phipps was carried through the streets on a chair for half an hour, accompanied by flaming torches, before the dummy was burned at the public cross.

As discussed earlier, both Henry and his brother Constantine appear to have had relatives and close associates in Virginia. These brothers had a grandfather, Constantine Henry Phipps, who had been Lord Chancellor of Ireland.

If any single word could characterize his political career, it was unpopularity – unpopularity to an extreme. It was Constantine Henry whose twin sister married a George Reeves who died in Virginia.

All of this, it would seem, would be yet another reason why the Phipps family in Virginia did not appear eager to trumpet their genealogy and family connections.

See also:

Maritime Meanderings: Some Colonial-Era Connections

The sea was clearly in the blood of some members of the Phipps or Phips or Phripp family. A number of connections exist to the Royal Navy and to sea trade, especially trade with the Caribbean. A chronology below lists some of those connections.

Among the connections, one thing becomes evident: Past posts have speculated as to why it was the case that, although the Fips or Phips or Phipps family in early Virginia and North Carolina appear to have some connection to high society of British origin, they generally seemed intent on keeping a low profile in America – an odd stance indeed.

Evidently here is at least part of the answer: By the 1760s, Fips or Phips or Phipps individuals in Virginia and North Carolina found themselves in an environment which was increasingly anti-British. At the same time, they appear to have had close relatives who were among some of the most prominent British figures fighting against pro-Revolution sentiments.

One of those relatives who pushed for British interests in defiance of the American cause was Capt. Charles Phipps, a British naval officer discussed below. In the story of Washington at Valley Forge and related incidents, Charles Phipps becomes, in Revolutionaries’ eyes, the enemy.

Charles was a great-grandson of the very prominent Constantine Henry Phipps, an English lawyer who eventually became Lord Chancellor of Ireland. That Constantine might not have ever been in Virginia, but was governor of Jamaica for a while.

Regardless, he appears to have been widely viewed as the perfect example of a stodgy, crabby, spoiled aristocrat, unpopular with the common people even in the British Isles. Constantine Henry Phipps had a twin sister Ann who married a George Reeves who deserted her and who died in Virginia.

Charles Phipps was the brother of another Constantine. This one was Constantine John Phipps. Like Charles, Constantine John Phipps became a Naval officer in the Royal Navy. In addition, he had various direct dealings with Virginia and North Carolina.

Constantine John Phipps was the godfather for a Corbin in Virginia. That Corbin appears to have been in the same social circle as the “Phripp” family which apparently was also known as Phips or Phipps.

Constantine John Phipps became equated in colonists’ minds with the despised Stamp Act, the notorious British law which was a primary factor leading to the Revolutionary War. In fact, it could have been, in part, because of this association that Matthew Phripp, the prominent Norfolk, Virginia merchant, was accused of being a Loyalist.

When Constantine John Phipps brought the stamps to Wilmington, North Carolina, Governor William Tryon suggested that Phipps distribute the stamps from onboard a boat in the harbor, fearing trouble otherwise. Tryon greeted the masses with an appeal to “the necessity of America’s helping her mother” and to “receive the stamps,” which resulted in no more favorable response than a “general hiss.”

Then another ship nearby unfurled the Irish flag, which was viewed as an act of defiance. After Phipps ordered the flag seized, the locals were infuriated. A mob gave Phipps trouble from below the window of the building where he was staying, and things got so bad that Phipps threatened to blow the town to smithereens, using the guns on his ship.

Constantine John Phipps was not exactly “flavor of the month,” as they might say in England today. In fact, he was a hated and despised figure who represented “the enemy.” Yet he clearly had relatives in Virginia and in the Caribbean. No wonder family members in America were not anxious to publicly draw attention to their British gentry connections.

In fact, a few weeks before the Wilmington incident, a crowd hanged a “gentleman” in effigy who had come out in favor of the Stamp Act. Mock executions were held in other cities. If you were a Phips or Phipps in North Carolina or Virginia and were related to Constantine John Phipps, would you want to make sure everyone knew you had such illustrious family connections?

Understanding this family, genealogically speaking, quickly becomes confusing because of the abundance of Phipps men named Constantine. The following skeletal outline should help, but even this outline does not include all the various Constantines.

In fact, there’s even a living Constantine Phipps today, the 5th Marquess of Normanby. He is an author who appears in the following video:

Indentation in the list below indicates a descendant relationship. It is hoped that the intended indentations will be preserved across all browsers and devices:

  • Francis Phipps of Reading, Berkshire, England, m. Anne Sharpe
    • Constantine Henry Phipps (b. 1656), twin brother of Anne, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, m. Catherine Sawyer
      • William Phipps m. Catherine Annesley, granddaughter of King James II
        • Constantine Phipps (b. 1722), 1st Baron Mulgrave, m. Lepell Hervey
          • Constantine John Phipps (b. 1744), 2nd Baron Mulgrave, British naval officer associated with the Stamp Act
          • Capt. Charles Phipps (b. 1753), British naval officer
    • Anne Phipps (b. 1656), twin sister of Constantine Henry, m. George Reeves who deserted her and died in Virginia

With regard to the George Reeves just mentioned, note that there were several persons of this name in Virginia who were probably related. One was the George Reeves of Wilkes County, North Carolina and then Grayson County, Virginia who was the father in law of Samuel Phips or Phipps of Wilkes County and then Ashe County, North Carolina.

Various connections involving sea captains, international trade, and maritime adventures are recounted in the chronology below:

23 May 1609:

The second charter of Virginia, dated 23 May 1609, was signed by the group of merchants and gentry who together made up the Virginia Company of London. Among those signing was Robert Phipps, listed as a grocer.


William Phips, who became the first colonial governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony (but not of Massachusetts) was supposedly born in Maine in 1651. He is said to have become involved in transporting goods between New England and the West Indies in the Caribbean through his association with a ship captain named Roger Spencer. Spencer became his father in law.

One source claims that William became the captain of a ship which transported codfish and pine lumber from New England to the Caribbean, while then bringing back molasses for sale in New England. Another source says he made “many voyages” to the West Indies.


George Reeves appears to have had his estate probated in both Middlesex County, Virginia and Middlesex County (London), England in 1689. He married Ann/Anne Phipps, twin sister of Constantine Henry Phipps, with both having been the offspring of Francis Phipps of Reading, Berkshire, England. Ann appears to have died in England while George Reeves, her husband, died in Virginia with his estate probated in both Virginia and England.


John Blackmore was master of a Maryland “pinck” (a type of ship) called the Ann. “Secret conferences” were supposedly held in Annapolis in 1696 and/or 1698 which examined charges that he was a pirate. He appears to have had various other run-ins with the law as a ship captain.

Then, in 1712, he is supposed to have given power of attorney to a certain Katherine/Catherine Phipps/Phips, believed to have been the wife of a George Phips/Phipps. This George may have lived in Anne Arundel County.


William Phipps married Catharine Annesley in 1718. She was a daughter of James Annesley and his wife Catharine Darnley, who was the illegitimate daughter of King James II. James II was the king who authorized the efforts of another William, Sir William Phips, to salvage sunken treasure off a Spanish shipwreck in the Caribbean.

The William who married Catherine was a son of Constantine Henry Phipps and a nephew of the Ann Phipps who married George Reeves who died in Virginia.

Phips’s 2nd expedition was financed by the Duke of Albemarle, apparently the same one who was Catharine Darnley’s brother. The William Phipps who married Catharine Annesley was a grandson of Francis Phipps of Reading, Berkshire, England. We are supposed to believe that all of these connections are strictly coincidental.

Did “Sir” William’s genealogy and biography, as generally told, become so obviously botched as a result of the Revolution, in an attempt to hide anti-Revolutionary aristocratic connections? Or did that occur earlier for some reason?

11 October 1718:

The Post Boy, a newspaper published in London on 11 October 1718, noted that one “Captain Phips” had arrived in the port of Bristol with his ship, a galley called the Reymond. He was of the port of Bristol and had returned from the African coast.


The 1722 Norfolk County, Virginia will of Robert Tucker appears to refer to a sloop being built for him. A somewhat cryptic notation appears: “Capt. John Phripp will bidd for and purchase.” The Phripp family in the Norfolk area appears to have sometimes gone by Phipps/Phips.

Also associated with this family was John Tucker, whose 1731/2 Norfolk County will mentions money “to be raised out of” his goods from the Caribbean. The will mentions “my sloops” and “my friend John Phripp.”

The 1734 Norfolk County will of Richard Joell was witnessed by J. Phripp and refers to Joell’s friend “Capt. Nathaniel Tatum,” perhaps meaning a sea captain. Also associated with the Phripp family was John Ellegood, whose 1740 Norfolk will refers to his “Sea Sloop” in addition to various other “Water craft.”

He also mentions his rum, dry goods, and other “wares & Merchandize.” The reference to rum would indicate that he was involved in the lucrative Caribbean trade. He and Matthew Phripp, the Norfolk merchant, were both suspected of Loyalist beliefs.

One source lists John Tayloe Corbin and Richard Corbin as among “the chief men of Tory inclinations in Virginia” (Eckenrode, The Revolution in Virginia). This reference clearly associates the Tayloe and Corbin families with Tory sentiments.

These families were also very clearly connected to Constantine John Phipps, discussed at length below, who attempted to find a northwest passage by way of the North Pole. Constantine John Phipps was a godfather to one of the Corbins in Virginia.

Constantine John Phipps was a descendant of Constantine Henry Phipps, twin brother of Anne Phipps who married a George Reeves; she died in England but he deserted her and died in Virginia.

All of this is strong circumstantial evidence which would seem to suggest that the Phripp family was very likely a part of the Phipps family, which descended from Francis Phipps of Reading, Berkshire, England.


Black slaves were brought to Yorktown and the James River in 1725 and 1726 via ships owned by four individuals, one of whom was John Phripp (see 1722, above). The ships were licensed in Williamsburg.

Another of the individuals involved was John Huchings, and the Hutchings name appears repeatedly in records in connection with the prominent Norfolk merchant Matthew Phripp. The ship Danger transported 3 blacks named “Frip” from Norfolk, presumably having belonged to a Phripp, to Nova Scotia in 1783.

9 August 1725:

A certain Capt. Samuel Phipps was buried at Charlestown, Massachusetts 9 August 1725. That was noted in the Diary of Samuel Sewall as published in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. 7, 5th series (Boston, 1882), p. 388, in Sewall’s diary on 22 December 1727.

23 May 1755:

Capt. Samuel Phripp was in charge of a ship called Hannah, as reported 23 May 1755 in the Virginia Gazette. At the time, the ship arrived in the “lower District” of the James River. The ship was carrying 2,900 bushels of corn, 50,000 shingles, and 17 boxes of candles, and was bound for Bermuda.

Judging from what some of the other ships which were listed and which had also arrived at the James River were carrying, the Hannah was likely to return with such goods from the Caribbean as rum and sugar. “Negroes,” listed as though they were just another commodity, was another possibility.

This Samuel Phripp was presumably related to the Norfolk merchant Matthew Phripp. Records indicate that this family also went by Phipps or Phips at times, or were at least referred to as such.

15 January 1760:

A certain Charles Phipps was mentioned in a London news report dated 15 January 1760, as published in the Public Ledger. The news report refers to him as “the young” Charles Phipps, “from Virginia to Jamaica,” as published under shipping news.

According to the report, he was “taken” 18 June (presumably 1759), and “re-taken by the General Amhurst privateer of New-York, and carried into Providence,” presumably Rhode Island.

What is that all about? Since the item was published under shipping news, was he a ship captain? “General Amhurst” was presumably Jeffery Amherst, the 1st Baron Amherst, who was born in 1717 and who died in 1797. He was a British Army officer and at one time was the crown governor of Virginia.

A certain Lt. Phipps, apparently David Phipps, was in command of the HMS Mohawk under Amherst during the 1760 Battle of the Thousand Islands during the French and Indian War. This was at Fort Lewis on the upper St. Lawrence River.

Wikipedia notes that Amherst was based in New York when he dispatched troops for the West Indies in the Caribbean. This led to the capture of Dominica in 1761 and of Martinique and Cuba in 1762. Note that Charles Phipps was “re-taken” by General Amhurst in 1759, evidently.

Could the story suggest that Charles Phipps had been captured by the French – hence “taken” – but then rescued (“re-taken”) by the British under Amherst? The same “taken and retaken” wording appears in a list of “American Vessels taken and retaken by his Majesty’s Ships” during the Revolutionary War in 1776.

And what is the reference to a privateer? A privateer was either a person or a ship authorized by one government to attack ships of another government in wartime. Was Charles Phipps a privateer in the Caribbean who was captured by the French and then recaptured by General Amherst? Amherst became major-general in 1758, after coming against the French in Canada.

And who was this Charles Phipps? Could this Charles Phipps have possibly been related to the Lt. Phipps – apparently Lt. David Phipps – mentioned a few times in Jeffery Amherst’s journal in 1760, the date of the newspaper article? On 9 July 1760, Jeffery Amherst arrived at Oswego, New York. He noted on 15 July 1760:

Capt Prescott went on board & stoped Capt Loring from coming into port. He sailed from Niagara on the 13th & Lt Phipps who I had sent from hence on the 9th with Guns, ammunition & 100 Seamen had not then arrived at Niagara.

Then on 19 July 1760, Amherst noted “Lt Phipps arrived from Niagara. Capt [Joshua] Loring was sailed before he arrived with his seamen.” Amherst then noted on the 20th,

In the morning two Vessels appeared . . . Lt Phipps declared they were a Schooner & a Brig, so that they must be the Enemys. I ordered three whale boats, wrote to Capt Loring by each of them of their being off here, & to desire he would post himself at the river so that they may not get in. I sent Lt Phipps in one, Capt Modie, who knows the Lake, in another, and a soldier acquainted with the Lake in a third.

The French sighted two British ships, the Onondaga and the Mohawk, on 7 August 1760. The two British ships then pursued the French. The Mohawk, according to Wikipedia, was commanded by Lt. David Phipps.

On 23 August 1760, during firing at the fort, Amherst discussed in his journal this use of ships:

I sent to Capt. Loring to desire the Vessels would move down together & go close to the Fort. The Mohawk got down very soon, but the others not following, he lay alongside about three-quarters of an hour, & the Enemy from their first consternation recovered themselves & fired their Guns, one shot taking Place in the Mohawk, then beat in a Plank and risked her sinking. Lt. Phipps cut the Cable and got down before the Island. Then the other two Vessels arrived nearer the Fort . . . .

An online article in the Continental Navy website about Lt. David Phipps notes that the David Phipps discussed here could have been the David Phipps who was born 1741 at Falmouth, Maine, but that he also could have been the “future British naval captain,” also named David Phipps.

The one born at Falmouth was supposed to have been a son of Danforth Phipps, who was a shipwright, and his wife Elizabeth Skillings. That David then resided in New Haven, Connecticut.


Stamp Act protests in North Carolina began in the summer of 1765. This was about to become an explosive issue, with Constantine John Phipps right in the middle of it. See here for background.

28 November 1765:

Governor William Tryon of North Carolina had been attempting, apparently in vain, to rally the colonists in favor of the Stamp Act. Capt. Constantine John Phipps brought the dreaded stamps to North Carolina onboard his ship, the Diligence, on 28 November 1765.

20 December 1765:

Capt. Constantine John Phipps brought Governor Tryon to Wilmington from Brunswick, on the Cape Fear River, on 20 December 1765. The purpose was that a ceremony had been arranged having to do with Tryon’s commission as governor.

Tryon urged the crowd to support the Stamp Act and to “receive the stamps.” The crowd hissed and another ship in the harbor raised the Irish flag in defiance. Phipps had the flag seized, to the fury of the crowd who then harassed Phipps at his place of lodging.

Things got so bad that Phipps threatened to use the Diligence to blow up the town. The threat was not carried out, but he had gone back up to Brunswick, where the ship was located (he had brought Tryon to Wilmington in a barge) intending to bring the sloop Diligence back to Wilmington, along with the ship’s 12 guns.

25 February 1766:

News of the Wilmington incident involving Constantine John Phipps gradually made its way into the print media of the day. A letter dated 25 February 1766 appears in The State Records of North Carolina under the heading “Armed Resistance to the Stamp Act.”

That letter refers to Captain Phipps and the ship known as the Diligence. This would be Constantine John Phipps, and the relationship of Phipps to the Stamp Act is discussed more fully below.

7 March 1766:

Constantine John Phipps

Constantine John Phipps

The Virginia Gazette reported on 7 March 1766, via an unnamed correspondent in Halifax (presumably Nova Scotia) that one Capt. Phipps, in the ship Diligence, was attempting to distributing stamps under the Stamp Act.

He tried to distribute them at Wilmington North Carolina, but found that locals were prepared to meet his ship with rafts, with plans to “set him, ship, and stamps, all on fire.”

This would have been Constantine John Phipps, who was better known for attempting to reach the North Pole by ship. He was also the brother of Capt. Charles Phipps, the British Naval officer who fought against the Americans during the Revolution.

Constantine John Phipps was promoted 24 November 1763 to command the Diligence, which was a 12-gun sloop, according to his biography in Wikipedia. The newspaper article connects Phipps with active attempts to carry out the highly unpopular Stamp Act in America. That act was passed the year before, in 1765.

13 March 1766:

The schooner Ranger, with its captain, Capt. Phipps, was reported in 1766 as having at arrived on 26 February 1766 at Ocracock. This report appeared in the Pennsylvania Gazette, in the issue of 13 March 1766.

Ocracock is off the coast of North Carolina, east of New Bern in the Outer Banks. The ship was said to have sailed “from this Port,” evidently referring to Philadelphia.

The Ranger, perhaps the same one, was captured during the Revolutionary War in 1777 by the British Naval officer Capt. Charles Phipps, who was onboard the Camilla. This Charles was the brother of the Constantine John Phipps who brought the stamps associated with the Stamp Act to Wilmington, North Carolina.

Did Charles Phipps capture a ship for which he had earlier served as captain? Or was the Capt. Phipps of the Ranger in 1766 a different Capt. Phipps?

9 July 1767:

James Phipps advertised in the Virginia Gazette (published in Williamsburg) on 9 July 1767 that he had items for sale at “reasonable” prices, “for ready money.” Those items were “West Indian rum and sugar.”

This, of course, indicates that he was involved either directly or indirectly in Caribbean trade. One would think that he was based in Williamsburg, but in the 10 April 1768 issue of the same newspaper (see below), he seemed to indicate that he was based in nearby Yorktown.

10 December 1767:

Vincent Phipps, esquire, was reported in the London Evening-Post on 10 December 1767 as having died the preceding Thursday. He was described as having “lately arrived from the East-Indies.”

The East Indies is, of course, an older term once used to refer to South and Southeast Asia. Vincent Phipps died at his home on North Street, in Red Lion Square. Red Lion Square is located where Bloomsbury and Holborn join, in central London.

The death of another Vincent Phipps was noted earlier, in the Whitehall Evening-Post or London Intelligencer on 6 November 1755. He was described as “late of Oswestry in the County of Salop,” and was a grocer.

“Salop” is just an old way of saying Shropshire. Shropshire is in the West Midlands, bordering Wales. Oswestry is very close to the Welsh border.

Perhaps this earlier (or at least he died earlier) Vincent Phipps was also a grocer.  Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society refers to “Vincent Phipps, grocer,” but without making it clear which one it was. He appears listed among the mayors of Oswestry, dated 1748.

One must wonder what the implications were of the East Indies reference with regard to the later Vincent Phipps. Was this a family involved in lucrative foreign trade?

17 March 1768:

Two different editions of the Virginia Gazette, published by two different publishers, are extant for 17 March 1768. Both report an identically-worded news item (one from New York, the other from Philadelphia).

According to that report, a certain Capt. Phipps was on the schooner Pitt, en route from Virginia to St. Christopher’s (St. Kitts) in the Caribbean, when the ship was “foundered.” This word, when applied to a ship, means that the ship began to fill with water and to sink.

Somehow Capt. Phipps and his crew managed to be rescued by another ship. That ship received them and took them to Georgia.

10 April 1768:

James Phipps (see 9 July 1767, above) announced from Yorktown in the pages of the Virginia Gazette that he had “just imported” some items from the Caribbean. For “cash only,” he had available the “best West Indian rum.” (He also had dry goods which he would exchange for grain.)

Phipps said that these items had arrived from St. Christopher’s (St. Kitts in the Caribbean), via the sloop Fanny, commanded by Capt. Robinson. The Slave Rebellion website refers to a ship of this name which, on 7 February 1763, imported 8 slaves into Georgia from St. Christopher’s (St. Kitts).

At that time, the ship’s master was Thomas Stevenson. Then again, on 28 Dec 1764, the Fanny (master Ralph Samson), which may or may not have been the same ship, imported 13 slaves from St. Kitts. That record notes that the ship was built in Bristol, England in 1756.

2 June 1768:

Old newspapers often published legal notices typically headed “A list of letters remaining in the Post Office at . . . ” or something similar. These lists of unclaimed letters can be important genealogically, because they often suggest that someone had been living in the area but may have moved away by the time of the notice.

Such a notice appeared in the Virginia Gazette of 2 June 1768, and listed unclaimed letters in the post office at Norfolk, Virginia (near Williamsburg and Yorktown). That list includes James Phipps, of the Fanny. This would be the sloop James Phipps had mentioned in his ad of 10 April 1768 (see above).

Does this indicate that James Phipps was now the ship’s master? If so, could he have been the “Captain Phipps” whose ship, the Pitt, foundered earlier that year when it was en route from Virginia to St. Kitts in the Caribbean?

Also, without knowing about mail delivery options and practices during this period, does the presence of this letter in the post office at Norfolk suggest anything? James Phipps (assuming it’s the same one) advertised from Yorktown on 14 April 1768. If his business was in Yorktown (and presumably he lived there as well), then is it significant that he had a letter remaining in Norfolk?

To travel from Yorktown to Norfolk would have meant traveling, roughly, about 40 miles south and crossing the Hampton Roads Bay. Did James Phipps have frequent dealings with Norfolk? Did he simply pass by there in his maritime travels (he could have started out from there, for that matter)?

If he had frequent dealings with Norfolk, could he have been associated in some way with Matthew Phripp – sometimes Phipps – the enigmatic Norfolk merchant? That Matthew Phripp eventually faced severe issues due to accusations that he was a Loyalist.


According to a “Chronology of Remarkable Events, Discoveries, and Inventions,” p. 307: “Captain Phipps is sent to explore the North pole; but having made 81 degrees, is in danger of being locked up by the ice; and his attempt to discover a passage in that quarter proves fruitless.” That chronology was published in Branagan, The Flowers of Literature (Philadelphia: Daniel Fenton, 1810).

This “Captain Phipps” would be Constantine John Phipps, discussed above at 7 March 1766. One must wonder whether he was the Capt. Phipps also discussed below, at 2 May 1777.

10 Oct 1771:

A violent slave rebellion hit Tobago in the Caribbean, as reported in the 10 October 1771 issue of the Virginia Gazette. A certain Capt. Ferguson, who was in charge of the troops at Tobago, marched with 12 men, pursuing the rebels who had set themselves up at a high wilderness point, armed with guns.

Ferguson and his men eventually prevailed, and two parties of whites then went out to “scour the Woods” in search of the remaining rebels. One of these parties was led by Col. Ferguson, while the other was under a certain “Captain Phipps.”

The article noted that Tobago could be expected to become a “Sugar island of the first importance.” Since the rebellion was quelled, local white planters were said to now “think of Nothing but Mountains of Sugars and Rivers of Rum.”

24 June 1773:

The Virginia Gazette announced on 24 June 1773 that his majesty’s sloop known as the Racehorse had been put into commission. In addition, “the honourable Captain Phipps” was appointed to command the ship. This reference is to Constantine John Phipps (see above at 7 March 1766 and 1771).

26 August 1773:

Captain Phipps, meaning Constantine John Phipps, was announced in the Virginia Gazette on 26 August 1773 as having set sail on the previous Wednesday. He and a Capt. Lutwidge (Skeffington Lutwidge), on the frigates Racehorse and Carcass, were said to be in search of “the N. W. Passage.”

Mariners looked for centuries for the Northwest Passage, an assumed sea route that would take them from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific. The Racehorse was an 18-gun Royal Navy sloop which is pictured in Wikipedia here. The Carcass was also in the Royal Navy and is pictured in the same illustration.

14 October 1773:

Letters were received in Williamsburg from some on board the Seahorse, a ship commanded by “Captain Phipps,” as reported in the Virginia Gazette on 14 October 1773. Actually, the paper got the name of the ship wrong, intending the Racehorse, not the Seahorse. The ship was said by the paper to have been seeking a northwest passage to Asia.

One of those onboard, a certain Mr. Wyndham, was described as a young and wealthy gentleman who was “incited by a Spirit of Curiosity.” Wyndham developed severe health issues, however, perhaps because of the cold temperatures, and when the “Seahorse” (meaning Racehorse) “fell in” with a ship from Germany returning from fishing off Greenland, he returned with them.

The officers and crew on board Phipps’s ship were said to be in “perfect Health and high Spirits.” According to the newspaper, they had obtained drinking water by using a distillation process invented by a certain Mr. Irwin, who just happened to also be onboard.

11 November 1773:

The Virginia Gazette reported that it had been determined that the “Eskimaus” (also spelled “Eskimaux,” meaning Eskimo) were “one and the same people” with the inhabitants of Greenland. This had been established, it was said, by the crew of a ship which had just come to Amsterdam from Hudson’s Bay.

That crew, it was said, “fell in” with “Capt. Phipp” off “Terra de Labradore,” apparently referring to the coast of Labrador. “The skipper” (presumably of the crew which “fell in” with Phipps rather than Phipps himself, but who knows?) was said to be “well acquainted with the Greenland tongue.”

On that basis, he, whoever he was, determined the announced kinship between the Eskimos and the people of Greenland.

The matter-of-fact way in which the article refers to “Capt. Phipp,” plus the locations described, leads one to assume that this was probably Constantine John Phipps. This Phipps, who attempted to reach the North Pole, is discussed above under the date 7 March 1766, in addition to other places in this chronology.

9 December 1773:

The Virginia Gazette further reported from the ships in Phipps’s expedition. Several times, as reported, the crews had become so lodged in the ice that their situation became “almost desperate,” but each time they managed to free themselves.

The article also noted that the purpose was not only to find a so-called northwest passage, but also to perform “astronomical Observations under the Northern Pole.” The men were noted as being in “perfect Health.” They had not reached the North Pole, but had sailed as far north as 81 degrees, 39 minutes.

3 September 1774:

The personal writings of Philip Vickers Fithian in Virginia include a notation dated 3 September 1774.  There he refers to a certain “Captain Fibbs” as inviting Fithian to a barbecue.

Because the family of Betty Tayloe Corbin (see here and 1722, 1725-1725, above) of Virginia is also discussed in Fithian’s writings, with Constantine John Phipps having been her godfather, it seems likely (although not definite) that this reference is to Constantine John Phipps.

30 December 1776:

A ship known as the Liberty, with Solomon Phipps as master, was an American ship which was “taken and retaken” by the British during the Revolutionary War on 30 December 1776. The ship was sailing from New London, Connecticut to the West Indies, in the Caribbean, as reported in The North-British Intelligencer or Constitutional Miscellany.

This Solomon Phipps appears to have been the son of Daniel Goffe Phipps, who was captured by a British ship in 1775 and placed in prison in Boston. Daniel then became captain of the Nancy in 1779 and played a major role in defending New London. Daniel was the master of a Connecticut sloop, the Rebeccah, in 1780. The ship was based in New Haven.

January 1777:

A British ship called the Camilla, commanded by Capt. Charles Phipps, captured the American sloop called the Fanny in January 1777, according to an article about the ship in Wikipedia.

A few days later, the Camilla captured the Ranger, whose master was William Davies. The Ranger was sailing from St. Lucia in the Caribbean. Then in April 1777, the Camilla captured a ship sailing from the Caribbean to Ocracoke, North Carolina.

Note that, as reported on 13 March 1766 (above), a ship called the Ranger sailed, apparently, from Philadelphia to Ocracoke, arriving there on 26 February 1766, with “Capt. Phipps” as its master. Was this the same Ranger which was captured by the Camilla, under Capt. Charles Phipps, in 1777?

Also, again the Camilla, under Capt. Charles Phipps, captured the American sloop the Fanny in January 1777. Is this the same sloop Fanny that was associated with James Phipps in 1768?

In that year, as a Yorktown merchant, James Phipps advertised rum from St. Christopher’s (St. Kitts) in the Caribbean which had arrived on the sloop Fanny. Note that also the 1768 unclaimed letter notice which was discussed above refers to James Phipps “of” the Fanny.

Could Charles, who was on the British side during the Revolution, have been related to James, the Yorktown merchant? Could this possibly have anything to do with the story Wayne Witcher heard, as noted a couple posts back, that claims that an early James Phipps had to flee Virginia for North Carolina?

2 May 1777:

A report from Williamsburg, dated 2 May 1777, was published on that date in the Virginia Gazette. That report included part of the text of what was described as a very long letter from General Howe to Lord Germain. That letter was dated 30 November of the previous year.

In that letter, mention is made of one “Captain Phipps” in command of efforts by the British to penetrate New Jersey. This Capt. Phipps had been sent by “the Admiral” with the aim of taking Ft. Lee. The article refers to Phipps as commanding “boats” which were sent by “the Admiral to Kingsbridge” on the evening of the 17th, “without being discovered by the enemy.”

This appears to be a reference to events having to do with Fort Lee in New Jersey, opposite Fort Washington in New York. Wikipedia calls the battle of Fort Lee on 20 November 1776 a successful British invasion which resulted in a “general retreat” of the Continental Army.

The 17th (without stating which month) is singled out in the article’s section about Phipps. On the 16th of November in 1776, Fort Lee and Fort Washington were lost to the British.

The British then controlled the Hudson River between the two forts. General Howe of the British forces then ordered Cornwallis (both of whom were referred to in the article) to clear out the rebels.

The same letter extracts were also published in the December 1776 issue of The Scots Magazine (p. 645):

Fort Lee being the next object for the entire command of the North river, and a ready road to penetrate into Jersey, an addition of boats, under the command of Capt. Phipps, was sent by the Admiral to King’s-bridge, in the night of the 17th, without being discovered by the enemy. The first division, for imbarkation, landed next day at eight o’clock in the morning, about seven miles above the fort, while the second division marched up the east side of the river; by which movement the whole corps, as per margin, were landed, with their cannon, by ten o’clock, under the command of Lt-Gen. Earl Cornwallis. The seaman distinguished themselves remarkably upon this occasion, by their readiness to drag the cannon up a rocky narrow road, for near half a mile, to the top of a precipice, which bounds the shore for some miles on the west side.

A 2014 book (Ketchum, The Winter Soldiers: The Battles for Trenton and Princeton), refers to this same letter and these events. There it is said that 20 flatboats, under Capt. Phipps, were used to ferry the British “assault force” under Cornwallis to New Jersey. The same letter excerpts also appear in American Archives and in a number of other sources.

Very interesting, but who was Phipps? A number of sources refer to “Captain Phipps” in connection with this event without identifying him. One would think it could have been Constantine John Phipps (see 7 March 1766 and 1777, above), but a more likely candidate was his brother, Charles Phipps.

Charles Phipps

Charles Phipps

Charles was an officer in the Royal Navy who is specifically referred to in sources as having served in the American Revolutionary War. Charles was born 10 December 1753.

The father of both Constantine John Phipps and Charles Phipps was Constantine Phipps, who was the 1st Baron Mulgrave. That Constantine (baptized 1722) was a grandson of Constantine Henry Phipps (baptized 1656), who was Lord Chancellor of Ireland.

This earlier Constantine Henry Phipps was born in Reading, Berkshire, England, a son of Francis Phipps who married Anne Sharpe. Anne Phipps, twin sister of this Constantine Henry Phipps, married George Reeves, who is said to have deserted her and to have died in Virginia.

After Anne Sharpe died, Francis Phipps remarried to the widow of a Jeaffreson from the Caribbean, with apparent connections to the Jefferson and Epps families of Virginia.

As has been already discussed in other posts, other apparent connections extend from there to another George Reeves. He was the father in law of Samuel Phipps of Ashe County, North Carolina. this Epps family probably connects to President Thomas Jefferson, who married an Epps.

Charles Phipps, according to his biography in Wikipedia, sailed for America in May of 1776. He appears to have been actively involved in Naval actions against the Continental Army in America at least into 1778. He died at Mulgrave Castle in Yorkshire on 20 October 1786.

25 May 1801:

A certain Captain Phipps was in charge of a private ship called the Hope, in 1801. On 25 May 1801, the Hope arrived from Bengal at East India House, as reported in The Naval Chronicle.

8 June 1802:

The Raleigh Register, published 8 June 1802 in Raleigh, North Carolina, noted the arrival of “Captain Phipps” in New York. He had come from Florida by way of Savannah, Georgia. He carried with him whites who had been driven off their plantations by the Indians.

27 November 1821:

A son was born to Captain Phipps at Barrackpore in West Bengal on 27 November 1821. This was reported in the Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany.

13 April 1825:

The obituary of Capt. David Phipps, who was reported as having died “recently,” appeared in the Daily National Journal in Washington on 13 April 1825. He was described as a Revolutionary soldier who was born 1741 in Falmouth, Maine, who who moved to New Haven, Connecticut before 1770.

In 1775, he entered military service as master of the ship Alfred. This ship, along with others, sailed to New Providence, where they captured the British governor of the island as one of the earliest Navy victories for the Americans.

Later, Phipps served on the Providence. He was captured 3 times by the British.

A Guilford Co., North Carolina Bastardy Bond

Thanks to Carole Conrad for alerting us as to an online copy of a Guilford County, North Carolina bastardy bond. The bond concerns an illegitimacy involving John Phipps of Guilford County and is dated 1822.

This John Phipps was presumably the one who appears to have been a son of Aaron Phipps (about 1760-1840) and his wife Christina Jane Ingle. The document is signed by what appears to be a “john ingle.”

John Phipps was born in Guilford County according to the death certificate of his son John, and about 1794 according to the 1850 census. That would make him about 28 at the time of the document.

He then married Barbara Phillipie on 11 April 1827 in G5uilford County, with the marriage bond dated 11 April 1827. The bondsman for the marriage was John Ingle, presumably the same one who had signed the bastardy bond just five years earlier.

The bastardy bond is low resolution, but the woman’s name appears to read Nancy Ledenham. There does appear to have been a Ledenham family (also spelled Ledenum, probably reflecting the British rather than later American pronunciation) in Guilford County.

An 1843 marriage bond refers to the marriage of Nancy Ledenham, perhaps this same one, to Nathan Gaston in Guilford County. That bond is dated 1 June 1843. A Family Search claim reads her name in that record as “Sedenhour,” doubtless a misreading of “Ledenham.”

The bastardy bond, dated 1822, reads as follows:

State of North-Carolina,
Guilford County

Know all men by these presents, That We, John Phipps John [Taylor?] Daniel Albright all of the County and State aforesaid are held and firmly bound unto John Landreth Joseph Gibson & Alex [Manner? or Hanner?] Esquires, Justices of the Peace of the County aforesaid, in the sum of Five Hundred Dollars – money of the State aforesaid: to which payment well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves, our heirs, &c. jointly and severally firmly by these presents, Sealed with our seals, and dated this 22d. day of May – Anno Domini 1822

THE CONDITION of the above obligation is such, that whereas a certain John Phipps – is charged with having a certain illegitimate Child, begotten on the body of Nancy [Ledenham?] Now if the said John Phipps his heirs, executors, &c. shall provide for the support and maintenance of the said Child to the indemnification of the parish of Guilford and the County aforesaid; and shall perform [such?] order as the Court shall from time to time make to the premises, then this obligation to be void, otherwise to remain in full force and virtue.

John Phipps ([Seal?])
john ing[le?] (Seal)
Daniel Alb[right?] (Seal)

Executed in open Court.
[Jno.?] [Hamner?] [CCC? (for County Court Clerk?)]